Skip to main content Skip to navigation

Level 9

Filter
Filter

The Arts

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of Level 10 standards in the Arts, they design, make and present arts works. In doing so, they develop skills in making decisions about creative ways of generating and implementing ideas. They reflect on their experiences and observations, consider what they have learned about styles and forms and explore issues and concrete and abstract concepts to generate ideas. They keep their intended aesthetic qualities in mind when they experiment with, select, vary combinations of and manipulate arts elements, principles and/or conventions to effectively realise their ideas, represent their observations and communicate their interpretations of issues and concepts. For example:

  • in Music, in response to learning and performing songs that reflect the &...
Show more

Standards

At Level 9, students are working toward the Level 10 standards.

Civics and Citizenship

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of Level 10 standards in Civics and Citizenship, they explore the development of Australia’s democracy from Federation, the development of the Australian Constitution and the federal system of government. They investigate some historical and contemporary issues, such as the republican debate, the inclusion of a bill of rights in the Australian Constitution, the design of the Australian flag, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (ATSI) recognition in the Australian Constitution, and the division of federal and state powers. They compare Australia’s democracy with other democracies.

Students investigate the nature and history of the concept of human rights. They become aware of national and international legislation designed to protect...

Show more

Standards

At Level 9, students are working toward the Level 10 standards.

Communication

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of Level 10 standards in Communication, they listen to speakers in a range of contexts, including the school, the wider community and workplaces. They develop their skills in interpreting meaning; for example, by identifying inferences and assumptions. They know what it means to effectively respond both verbally and non-verbally in different contexts and are able to demonstrate this. Students elaborate on and clarify content of presentations, using pertinent questions to explore explicit and implicit meaning. In discussion with their peers, they evaluate the effectiveness of these presentations and note how they can apply the findings to their own presentations.

In structured activities, students explore the relationship between language and power...

Show more

Standards

At Level 9, students are working toward the Level 10 standards.

Design, Creativity and Technology

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of Level 10 standards in Design, Creativity and Technology, they specialise in a specific area of design and technology. Specialisations could focus on specific materials areas (such as wood, metal, plastics, food, ceramics or textiles) or technological systems (such as computer-controlled systems, electronics or mechanisms or combinations of these), or particular design/technology areas (such as home economics, fashion, robotics, furniture, agriculture and horticulture).

They continue to pose and define design problems by working with a variety of design briefs within various contexts including those that have transferability into the workplace and broader community.

Students develop design briefs within open-ended design guidelines. Referring...

Show more

Standards

At Level 9, students are working toward the Level 10 standards.

English

English Level Description

The English curriculum is built around the three interrelated strands of Language, Literature and Literacy. Teaching and learning programs should balance and integrate all three strands. Together the strands focus on developing students’ knowledge, understanding and skills in listening, reading, viewing, speaking, writing and creating. Learning in English builds on concepts, skills and processes...

Show more

English Content Descriptions

Reading and viewing

Language
  1. Understand that authors innovate with text structures and language for specific purposes and effects (ACELA1553)
  2. Compare and contrast the use of cohesive devices in texts, focusing on how they serve to signpost ideas, to make connections and to build semantic associations between ideas (ACELA1770)
  3. Investigate how evaluation can be expressed directly and indirectly using devices, for example allusion, evocative vocabulary and metaphor (ACELA1552)
  4. Analyse and explain the use of symbols, icons and myth in still and moving images and how these augment meaning (ACELA1560)
  5. Identify how vocabulary choices contribute to specificity, abstraction and stylistic effectiveness (ACELA1561)
  6. Understand how spelling is used creatively in texts for particular effects, for example characterisation and humour and to represent accents and styles of speech (ACELA1562)
  7. Explain how authors creatively use the structures of sentences and clauses for particular effects (ACELA1557)
Literature
  1. Interpret and compare how representations of people and culture in literary texts are drawn from different historical, social and cultural contexts (ACELT1633)
  2. Present an argument about a literary text based on initial impressions and subsequent analysis of the whole text (ACELT1771)
  3. Analyse texts from familiar and unfamiliar contexts, and discuss and evaluate their content and the appeal of an individual author’s literary style (ACELT1636)
  4. Explore and reflect on personal understanding of the world and significant human experience gained from interpreting various representations of life matters in texts (ACELT1635)
  5. Analyse text structures and language features of literary texts, and make relevant comparisons with other texts (ACELT1772)
  6. Investigate and experiment with the use and effect of extended metaphor, metonymy, allegory, icons, myths and symbolism in texts, for example poetry, short films, graphic novels, and plays on similar themes (ACELT1637)
Literacy
  1. Interpret, analyse and evaluate how different perspectives of issue, event, situation, individuals or groups are constructed to serve specific purposes in texts (ACELY1742)
  2. Explore and explain the combinations of language and visual choices that authors make to present information, opinions and perspectives in different texts (ACELY1745)
  3. Use comprehension strategies to interpret and analyse texts, comparing and evaluating representations of an event, issue, situation or character in different texts (ACELY1744)
  4. Analyse how the construction and interpretation of texts, including media texts, can be influenced by cultural perspectives and other texts (ACELY1739)
  5. Apply an expanding vocabulary to read increasingly complex texts with fluency and comprehension (ACELY1743)

Writing

Language
  1. Understand how certain abstract nouns can be used to summarise preceding or subsequent stretches of text (ACELA1559)
  2. Understand how punctuation is used along with layout and font variations in constructing texts for different audiences and purposes (ACELA1556)
Literature
  1. Experiment with the ways that language features, image and sound can be adapted in literary texts, for example the effects of stereotypical characters and settings, the playfulness of humour and pun and the use of hyperlink (ACELT1638)
  2. Create literary texts, including hybrid texts, that innovate on aspects of other texts, for example by using parody, allusion and appropriation (ACELT1773)
Literacy
  1. Create imaginative, informative and persuasive texts that present a point of view and advance or illustrate arguments, including texts that integrate visual, print and/or audio features (ACELY1746)
  2. Review and edit students’ own and others’ texts to improve clarity and control over content, organisation, paragraphing, sentence structure, vocabulary and audio/visual features (ACELY1747)
  3. Use a range of software, including word processing programs, flexibly and imaginatively to publish texts (ACELY1748)

Speaking and Listening

Language
  1. Understand that Standard Australian English is a living language within which the creation and loss of words and the evolution of usage is ongoing (ACELA1550)
  2. Understand that roles and relationships are developed and challenged through language and interpersonal skills (ACELA1551)
Literature
  1. Reflect on, discuss and explore notions of literary value and how and why such notions vary according to context (ACELT1634)
Literacy
  1. Listen to spoken texts constructed for different purposes, for example to entertain and to persuade, and analyse how language features of these texts position listeners to respond in particular ways (ACELY1740)
  2. Use interaction skills to present and discuss an idea and to influence and engage an audience by selecting persuasive language, varying voice tone, pitch, and pace, and using elements such as music and sound effects (ACELY1811)
  3. Plan, rehearse and deliver presentations, selecting and sequencing appropriate content and multimodal elements for aesthetic and playful purposes (ACELY1741)

English Achievement Standard

Reading and viewing

By the end of Level 9, students analyse the ways that text structures can be manipulated for effect. They analyse and explain how images, vocabulary choices and language features distinguish the work of individual authors. They evaluate and integrate ideas and information from texts to form their own interpretations. They select evidence from the text to analyse and explain how language choices and conventions are used to influence an audience.

Writing

Students understand how to use a variety of language features to create different levels of meaning. They understand how interpretations can vary by comparing their responses to texts to the responses of others. In creating texts students demonstrate how manipulating language features and images can create innovative texts. They create texts that respond to issues interpreting and integrating ideas from other texts. They edit for effect, selecting vocabulary and grammar that contribute to the precision and persuasiveness of texts and using accurate spelling and punctuation.

Speaking and Listening

They listen for ways texts position an audience. They understand how to use a variety of language features to create differe...

Show more

Health and Physical Education

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of Level 10 standards in Health and Physical Education, they develop proficiency in a range of high-level movement and manipulative skills such as a smash in tennis, and focus on identifying and implementing ways of improving the quality of their performance during games, physical activities and sports. They may be introduced to new sports, games or activities which will require them to learn new skills or adapt previously learnt skills in a new context.

They investigate different components of fitness, how these vary between activities and how they contribute to the wellbeing of people at different stages of their lives. Students learn to set personal physical activity and/or fitness goals, develop an activity and/or fitness program and evaluate...

Show more

Standards

At Level 9, students are working toward the Level 10 standards.

History

History Level Description

The Making of the Modern World

The Level 9 curriculum provides a study of the history of the making of the modern world from 1750 to 1918. It was a period of industrialisation and rapid change in the ways people lived, worked...

Show more

Key inquiry questions

  1. What were the changing features of the movements of people from 1750 to 1918?
  2. How did new ideas and technological developments contribute to change in this period?
  3. What was the origin, development, significance and long-term impact of imperialism in this period?
  4. What was the significance of World War I?

History Content Descriptions

Historical Knowledge and Understanding

Overview

The following content is taught as part of an overview for the historical period. It is not intended to be taught in depth. An overview will constitute approximately 10% of the total teaching time for the level. Overview content identifies important features of the period (1750 – 1918) as part of an expansive chronology that helps students understand broad patterns of historical change. As such, the overview provides the broader context for the teaching of depth study content and can be built into various parts of a teaching and learning program. This means that overview content can be used to give students an introduction to the historical period; to make the links to and between the depth studies, and to consolidate understanding through a review of the period.

Overview content for the making of the modern world includes the following:

  1. the nature and significance of the Industrial Revolution and how it affected living and working conditions, including within Australia
  2. the nature and extent of the movement of peoples in the period (slaves, convicts and settlers)
  3. the extent of European imperial expansion and different responses, including in the Asian region
  4. the emergence and nature of significant economic, social and political ideas in the period, including nationalism
Depth studies
There are three depth studies for this historical period. For each depth study, there are up to three electives that focus on a particular society, event, movement or development. It is expected that ONE elective will be studied in detail. A depth study will constitute approximately 30% of the total teaching time for the level. The content in each depth study elective is designed to allow detailed study of specific aspects of this historical period. As part of a teaching and learning program, depth study content can be integrated with overview content and/or with other depth study electives.
1 Making a Better World?
Students investigate how life changed in the period in depth through the study of ONE of these major developments: the Industrial Revolution or Movement of peoples or Progressive ideas and movements. The study includes the causes and effects of the development, and the Australian experience.
  1. The Industrial Revolution (1750 – 1914)
    1. The technological innovations that led to the Industrial Revolution, and other conditions that influenced the industrialisation of Britain (the agricultural revolution, access to raw materials, wealthy middle class, cheap labour, transport system, and expanding empire) and of Australia (ACDSEH017)
    2. The population movements and changing settlement patterns during this period (ACDSEH080)
    3. The experiences of men, women and children during the Industrial Revolution, and their changing way of life (ACDSEH081)
    4. The short and long-term impacts of the Industrial Revolution, including global changes in landscapes, transport and communication (ACDSEH082)
    OR
  2. Progressive ideas and movements (1750 – 1918)
    1. The emergence and nature of key ideas in the period, with a particular focus on ONE of the following: capitalism, socialism, egalitarianism, nationalism, imperialism, Darwinism, Chartism (ACDSEH019)
    2. The reasons why ONE key idea emerged and/or developed a following, such as the influence of the Industrial Revolution on socialism (ACDSEH086)
    3. The role of an individual or group in the promotion of ONE of these key ideas, and the responses to it from, for example, workers, entrepreneurs, land owners, religious groups (ACDSEH087)
    4. The short and long-term impacts of ONE of these ideas on Australia and the world (ACDSEH088)
    OR
  3. Movement of peoples (1750 – 1901)
    1. The influence of the Industrial Revolution on the movement of peoples throughout the world, including the transatlantic slave trade and convict transportation (ACDSEH018)
    2. The experiences of slaves, convicts and free settlers upon departure, their journey abroad, and their reactions on arrival, including the Australian experience (ACDSEH083)
    3. Changes in the way of life of a group(s) of people who moved to Australia in this period, such as free settlers on the frontier in Australia (ACDSEH084)
    4. The short and long-term impacts of the movement of peoples during this period (ACDSEH085)
2 Australia and Asia
Students investigate the history of Australia OR an Asian society in the period 1750 – 1918 in depth.
  1. Asia and the world
    1. The key features (social, cultural, economic, political) of ONE Asian society (such as China, Japan, India, Dutch East Indies, India) at the start of the period (ACDSEH093)
    2. Change and continuity in the Asian society during this period, including any effects of contact (intended and unintended) with European power(s) (ACDSEH094)
    3. The position of the Asian society in relation to other nations in the world around the turn of the twentieth century (that is 1900), including the influence of key ideas such as nationalism (ACDSEH142)
    4. The significance of ONE key event that involved the Asian society and European power(s), including different perspectives of the event at the time (ACDSEH141)
  2. Making a nation
    1. The extension of settlement, including the effects of contact (intended and unintended) between European settlers in Australia and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples (ACDSEH020)
    2. The experiences of non-Europeans in Australia prior to the 1900s (such as the Japanese, Chinese, South Sea Islanders, Afghans) (ACDSEH089)
    3. Living and working conditions in Australia around the turn of the twentieth century (that is 1900) (ACDSEH090)
    4. Key events and ideas in the development of Australian self-government and democracy, including women's voting rights (ACDSEH091)
    5. Legislation 1901-1914, including the Harvester Judgment, pensions, and the Immigration Restriction Act (ACDSEH092)
3 World War I
Students investigate key aspects of World War I and the Australian experience of the war, including the nature and significance of the war in world and Australian history.
  1. World War I (1914-1918)
    1. An overview of the causes of World War I and the reasons why men enlisted to fight in the war (ACDSEH021)
    2. The places where Australians fought and the nature of warfare during World War I, including the Gallipoli campaign (ACDSEH095)
    3. The impact of World War I, with a particular emphasis on Australia (such as the use of propaganda to influence the civilian population, the changing role of women, the conscription debate) (ACDSEH096)
    4. The commemoration of World War I, including debates about the nature and significance of the Anzac legend (ACDSEH097)

Historical Skills

Chronology, terms and concepts
  1. Use chronological sequencing to demonstrate the relationship between events and developments in different periods and places (ACHHS164)
  2. Use historical terms and concepts (ACHHS165)
Historical questions and research
  1. Identify and select different kinds of questions about the past to inform historical inquiry (ACHHS166)
  2. Evaluate and enhance these questions (ACHHS167)
  3. Identify and locate relevant sources, using ICT and other methods (ACHHS168)
Analysis and use of sources
  1. Identify the origin, purpose and context of primary and secondary sources (ACHHS169)
  2. Process and synthesise information from a range of sources for use as evidence in an historical argument (ACHHS170)
  3. Evaluate the reliability and usefulness of primary and secondary sources (ACHHS171)
Perspectives and interpretations
  1. Identify and analyse the perspectives of people from the past (ACHHS172)
  2. Identify and analyse different historical interpretations (including their own) (ACHHS173)
Explanation and communication
  1. Develop texts, particularly descriptions and discussions that use evidence from a range of sources that are referenced (ACHHS174)
  2. Select and use a range of communication forms (oral, graphic, written) and digital technologies (ACHHS175)

History Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 9, students refer to key events and the actions of individuals and groups to explain patterns of change and continuity over time. They analyse the causes and effects of events and developments and make judgments about their importance. They explain the motives and actions of people at the time. Students explain the significance of these events and developments over the short and long term. They explain different interpretations of the past.

Students sequence events and developments within a chronological framework, with reference to periods of time and their duration. When researching, students develop different kinds of questions to frame an historical inquiry. They interpret, process, analyse and organise information from a range of primary and secondary sources and use it as evidence to answer inquiry questions. Students examine sources to compare different points of view. When evaluating these sources, they analyse origin and purpose, and draw conclusions about their usefulness. They develop their own interpretations about the past. Students develop texts, particularly explanations and discussions, incorporating historical interpretations. In developing...

Show more

The Humanities - Economics

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of Level 10 standards in Economics, they develop their understanding of how the Australian economy is managed, particularly within the international economic context. They analyse how macroeconomic and microeconomic policies and programs advanced by governments and other institutions affect them and their fellow citizens. They examine the role of exchange, trade and globalisation in influencing Australia’s standard of living. They develop an understanding of enterprise attributes and skills, and describe the impact of innovation and enterprise on the economy and society.

Students investigate the relationship between economic growth, ecological sustainability and the standard of living, and explore what it means to be an ethical producer...

Show more

Standards

At Level 9, students are working toward the Level 10 standards.

The Humanities - Geography

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of Level 10 standards in Geography, they develop knowledge about the operation of one of the major natural systems that are part of the biosphere and atmosphere; for example, the hydrologic cycle, plate tectonics or the weather. Students investigate the interaction of human activities with the natural environment through a study of issues such as global warming and climate change, land degradation and desertification, and air and water pollution. Students develop skills to evaluate the factors contributing to the development of these issues, identify strategies to address them and explore ways of managing them.

Students investigate the characteristics of development that occur across the globe. They use an inquiry-based approach to explore how...

Show more

Standards

At Level 9, students are working toward the Level 10 standards.

Information and Communications Technology

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of Level 10 standards in Information and Communications Technology, they use complex ICT tools and techniques to visually represent, model, reframe and refine their thinking to assist in developing new understanding. For example, they can represent causal reasoning by using graphic organisers such as cause-and-effect diagrams, influence diagramsand explore and represent the interdependence between different components of a situation by using expert systems, spreadsheets and microworlds. By changing the values of some variable components, students can visualise the effect of these on the constant components to assist their understanding.

In addition to recording and evaluating the decisions and actions taken when developing new understanding and...

Show more

Standards

At Level 9, students are working toward the Level 10 standards.

Interpersonal Development

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of Level 10 standards in Interpersonal Development, they develop their knowledge of local and global values and beliefs and consider the idea of values as social constructs and principles. They explore barriers to achieving positive relationships, especially between groups with differing values and beliefs, and discuss the importance of empathy. They explore strategies that they and others could use to overcome these barriers, and practise using such strategies and reflecting on their effectiveness.

They learn to consider feelings and behaviour in a broader context that is influenced by social conventions and cultures. They understand individual and group behaviour in the context of motivating factors when students participate in activities, including...

Show more

Standards

At Level 9, students are working toward the Level 10 standards.

Languages Pathway 1

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of standards in Languages at Pathway 1 Level 10, they compare and contrast aspects of life in non-English speaking countries with those in multicultural Australia, and the impact of some of these aspects on the way people behave and use language.

They explore the extent and limitations of the language that they have learnt. They develop strategies for maximising and extending the skills and knowledge and cultural understanding they have acquired. They understand that language is a complex system with rules, and differences from English. They realise that words and concepts may not have a direct equivalent in another language.

Students extend their interactions to exchange information and opinions on topics such as leisure, relationships,...

Show more

Standards

At Level 9, students are working toward the Level 10 standards.

Languages Pathway 2

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of standards in Languages at Pathway 2 Level 9, they compare and contrast aspects of life in non-English speaking countries with those in multicultural Australia, and identify similarities and differences.

Students learn to recognise the extent and limitations of their language proficiency and develop strategies for maximising and extending their language skills, knowledge and cultural understanding. They understand that language is a complex system with rules, and that there are subtle differences between languages. They appreciate that direct transposition from English cannot occur. They reflect on their own learning styles and strategies.

Students interact to exchange information and opinions on topics related to the world of adolescence...

Show more

Standards

At Pathway 2 Level 9, students are working toward the Level 10 standards.

Mathematics

Mathematics Level Description

The proficiency strands Understanding, Fluency, Problem Solving and Reasoning are an integral part of mathematics content across the three content strands: Number and Algebra, Measurement and Geometry, and Statistics and Probability. The proficiencies reinforce the significance of working mathematically within the content and describe how the content is explored or developed. They provide the...

Show more

Mathematics Content Descriptions

Number and Algebra

Real numbers
  1. Solve problems involving direct proportion. Explore the relationship between graphs and equations corresponding to simple rate problems (ACMNA208)
  2. Apply index laws to numerical expressions with integer indices (ACMNA209)
  3. Express numbers in scientific notation (ACMNA210)
Money and financial mathematics
  1. Solve problems involving simple interest (ACMNA211)
Patterns and algebra
  1. Extend and apply the index laws to variables, using positive integer indices and the zero index (ACMNA212)
  2. Apply the distributive law to the expansion of algebraic expressions, including binomials, and collect like terms where appropriate (ACMNA213)
Linear and non-linear relationships
  1. Find the distance between two points located on a Cartesian plane using a range of strategies, including graphing software (ACMNA214)
  2. Find the midpoint and gradient of a line segment (interval) on the Cartesian plane using a range of strategies, including graphing software (ACMNA294)
  3. Sketch linear graphs using the coordinates of two points and solve linear equations (ACMNA215)
  4. Graph simple non-linear relations with and without the use of digital technologies and solve simple related equations (ACMNA296)

Measurement and Geometry

Using units of measurement
  1. Calculate the areas of composite shapes (ACMMG216)
  2. Calculate the surface area and volume of cylinders and solve related problems (ACMMG217)
  3. Solve problems involving the surface area and volume of right prisms (ACMMG218)
  4. Investigate very small and very large time scales and intervals (ACMMG219)
Geometric reasoning
  1. Use the enlargement transformation to explain similarity and develop the conditions for triangles to be similar (ACMMG220)
  2. Solve problems using ratio and scale factors in similar figures (ACMMG221)
Pythagoras and trigonometry
  1. Investigate Pythagoras’ Theorem and its application to solving simple problems involving right angled triangles (ACMMG222)
  2. Use similarity to investigate the constancy of the sine, cosine and tangent ratios for a given angle in right-angled triangles (ACMMG223)
  3. Apply trigonometry to solve right-angled triangle problems (ACMMG224)

Statistics and Probability

Chance
  1. List all outcomes for two-step chance experiments, both with and without replacement using tree diagrams or arrays. Assign probabilities to outcomes and determine probabilities for events (ACMSP225)
  2. Calculate relative frequencies from given or collected data to estimate probabilities of events involving 'and' or 'or' (ACMSP226)
  3. Investigate reports of surveys in digital media and elsewhere for information on how data were obtained to estimate population means and medians (ACMSP227)
Data representation and interpretation
  1. Identify everyday questions and issues involving at least one numerical and at least one categorical variable, and collect data directly from secondary sources (ACMSP228)
  2. Construct back-to-back stem-and-leaf plots and histograms and describe data, using terms including ‘skewed’, ‘symmetric’ and ‘bi modal’ (ACMSP282)
  3. Compare data displays using mean, median and range to describe and interpret numerical data sets in terms of location (centre) and spread (ACMSP283)

Mathematics Achievement Standard

Number and Algebra

Students apply the index laws using integer indices to variables and numbers, express numbers in scientific notation, solve problems involving very small and very large numbers, and check the order of magnitude of calculations. They solve problems involving simple interest. Students use the distributive law to expand algebraic expressions, including binomial expressions, and simplify a range of algebraic expressions. They find the distance between two points on the Cartesian plane and the gradient and midpoint of a line segment using a range of strategies including the use of digital technology. Students sketch and draw linear and non-linear relations, solve simple related equations and explain the relationship between the graphical and symbolic forms, with and without the use of digital technology.

Measurement and Geometry

Students solve measurement problems involving perimeter and area of composite shapes, surface area and volume of rectangular prisms and cylinders, with and without the use of digital technology. They relate three-dimensional objects to two-dimensional representations. Students explain similarity of triangles, interpret ratios and scale factors in similar figures, and apply Pythagoras's theorem and trigonometry to solve problems involving angles and lengths in right-angled triangles.

Statistics and Probability

Students compare techniques for collecting data from primary and secondary sources, and identify questions and issues involving different data types. They construct histograms and back-to-back stem-and-leaf plots with and without the use of digital technology. Students identify mean and median in skewed, symmetric and bi-modal displays and use these to describe and interpret the distribution of the data. They calculate relative frequencies to estimate probabilities. Students list outcomes for two-step experiments and assign probabilities for those outcomes and related events. 

Personal Learning

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of Level 10 standards in Personal Learning, they demonstrate increasing independence in the completion of tasks as they work towards becoming autonomous learners. They participate in reflective activities that enable them to consider the progress they are making with their learning and to acknowledge their potential for learning beyond the post-compulsory school years.

Students are encouraged to use appropriate strategies to maximise their learning in a range of contexts and to review and refine their study habits. They complete projects that require them to work both independently and as part of a team, and are actively encouraged by their teachers to initiate learner-directed projects.

Using an ethical framework, students address ambiguous and...

Show more

Standards

At Level 9, students are working toward the Level 10 standards.

Science

Science Level Description

The Science Inquiry Skills and the Science as a Human Endeavour strands are described across a two-level band. In their planning, schools and teachers refer to the expectations outlined in the Achievement Standards and also to the content of the Science Understanding strand for the relevant level to ensure that these two strands are addressed over the two-level period. The three strands of the...

Show more

Science Content Descriptions

Science Understanding

Biological sciences
  1. Multi-cellular organisms rely on coordinated and interdependent internal systems to respond to changes to their environment (ACSSU175)
  2. Ecosystems consist of communities of interdependent organisms and abiotic components of the environment; matter and energy flow through these systems (ACSSU176)
Chemical sciences
  1. All matter is made of atoms which are composed of protons, neutrons and electrons; natural radioactivity arises from the decay of nuclei in atoms (ACSSU177)
  2. Chemical reactions involve rearranging atoms to form new substances; during a chemical reaction mass is not created or destroyed (ACSSU178)
  3. Chemical reactions, including combustion and the reactions of acids, are important in both non-living and living systems and involve energy transfer (ACSSU179)
Earth and space sciences
  1. The theory of plate tectonics explains global patterns of geological activity and continental movement (ACSSU180)
Physical sciences
  1. Energy transfer through different mediums can be explained using wave and particle models (ACSSU182)

Science as a Human Endeavour

Nature and development of science
  1. Scientific understanding, including models and theories, are contestable and are refined over time through a process of review by the scientific community (ACSHE157)
  2. Advances in scientific understanding often rely on developments in technology and technological advances are often linked to scientific discoveries (ACSHE158)
Use and influence of science
  1. People can use scientific knowledge to evaluate whether they should accept claims, explanations or predictions (ACSHE160)
  2. Advances in science and emerging sciences and technologies can significantly affect people’s lives, including generating new career opportunities (ACSHE161)
  3. The values and needs of contemporary society can influence the focus of scientific research (ACSHE228)

Science Inquiry Skills

Questioning and predicting
  1. Formulate questions or hypotheses that can be investigated scientifically (ACSIS164)
Planning and conducting
  1. Plan, select and use appropriate investigation methods, including field work and laboratory experimentation, to collect reliable data; assess risk and address ethical issues associated with these methods (ACSIS165)
  2. Select and use appropriate equipment, including digital technologies, to systematically and accurately collect and record data (ACSIS166)
Processing and analysing data and information
  1. Analyse patterns and trends in data, including describing relationships between variables and identifying inconsistencies (ACSIS169)
  2. Use knowledge of scientific concepts to draw conclusions that are consistent with evidence (ACSIS170)
Evaluating
  1. Evaluate conclusions, including identifying sources of uncertainty and possible alternative explanations, and describe specific ways to improve the quality of the data (ACSIS171)
  2. Critically analyse the validity of information in secondary sources and evaluate the approaches used to solve problems (ACSIS172)
Communicating
  1. Communicate scientific ideas and information for a particular purpose, including constructing evidence-based arguments and using appropriate scientific language, conventions and representations (ACSIS174)

Science Achievement Standard

At Level 9, the student is working towards the Level 10 standard.

Thinking Processes

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of Level 10 standards in Thinking Processes, they become discriminating thinkers, capable of making informed decisions about controversial and complex issues. They are supported to put effort into sustained thinking in order to construct deep understanding of key concepts across the curriculum. They continually reflect on their own thinking and identify assumptions that may influence their ideas. They seek to develop coherent knowledge structures and recognise gaps in their understanding. They are challenged to identify, use, reflect on, evaluate and modify a variety of effective thinking strategies to inform future choices.

Students begin to formulate and test hypotheses, contentions and conjectures and to collect evidence to support or reject...

Show more

Standards

At Level 9, students are working toward the Level 10 standards.

Scroll to the top of the page