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Level 8

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The Arts

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of Level 8 standards in the Arts, they use a range of starting points including observation, experience and research to represent, generate, develop and communicate real, imaginary and abstract ideas. For example:

  • in Drama, students work as an ensemble to explore cultural diversity by sharing experiences and observations through improvisation and role-play about a familiar situation, maintaining a diary of personal reflections throughout their performance making
  • in Art, following several lessons exploring line, tonal rendering, perspective and foreshortening as ways to represent and define form, students work from direct observation of people/places/objects and create the illusion of space and form on a two-dimensional surface.

Students explore...

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Standards

Creating and making

At Level 8, students, independently and collaboratively, plan, design, improvise, interpret, evaluate, refine, make and present arts works that represent and communicate ideas and purpose. They experiment with, select and use appropriate skills, techniques, processes, media, materials, equipment and technologies across a range of arts forms and styles. They generate and develop ideas that explore particular concepts, techniques and issues when making arts works. They combine and manipulate arts elements, principles and/or conventions to represent and communicate ideas and develop imaginative solutions to set tasks. They maintain a record of the creating and making of their arts works and explain their decisions about how they present arts works for specific purposes...

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Civics and Citizenship

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of Level 8 standards in Civics and Citizenship, they study the origins of democracy and various other types of government in an historical context. They learn about how past societies such as Ancient Greece and Rome have influenced modern democracies. They learn how Australian democracy developed from an autocracy to a modern democracy and the British foundations of Australian democracy.

Students learn about significant milestones in the development of Australian law, governance and rights. They explore the historical origins of some political rights, such as universal suffrage, secret ballot and payment of parliamentarians. They consider examples of the fight for political rights such as the Eureka movement, the eight-hour day and fair working...

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Standards

Civic knowledge and understanding

At Level 8, students explain the origins and features of representative government. They identify significant developments in the governance and achievement of political rights in Australia. They explain key features of Australian Government including the responsibilities of the levels of government, the houses of parliament, political parties and the ways that citizens are represented, using some contemporary examples in their explanations. They describe the purposes of laws and the processes of creating and changing them. They identify and question the features and values of Australia’s political and legal systems. They identify and discuss the qualities of leadership through historical and contemporary examples.

Community engagement

At Level...

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Communication

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of Level 8 standards in Communication, they develop a range of strategies for listening attentively and extracting meaning from communications, including taking notes and small group discussion to record and summarise main messages. They reflect on how the explicit body language of a speaker influences their enjoyment and understanding of a presentation, and practise modifying their own body language to show interest and respect when listening to a speaker.

Students respond to a wide variety of aural, written and visual media; for example film, radio, the Internet, billboards, multimedia, and text messages. They explore both implicit and explicit meaning, how the author has structured and presented ideas, and whether they have used specialised...

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Standards

Listening, viewing and responding

At Level 8, students modify their verbal and non-verbal responses to suit particular audiences. They interpret complex information and evaluate the effectiveness of its presentation. When responding, they use specialised language and symbols as appropriate to the contexts in which they are working. They consider their own and others’ points of view, apply prior knowledge to new situations, challenge assumptions and justify their own interpretations.

Presenting

At Level 8, students use the communication conventions, forms and language appropriate to the subject to convey a clear message across a range of presentation forms to meet the needs of the context, purpose and audience. They provide and use constructive feedback and reflection to develop effective communication skills.

Design, Creativity and Technology

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of Level 8 standards in Design, Creativity and Technology, they individually and in teams, develop innovative solutions in design and technology contexts (for example, creating a low-fat biscuit and designing a three-dimensional, environmentally-friendly package for eight of the biscuits) and evaluate their decisions with reference to design brief specifications. They develop greater spatial awareness, are encouraged to think flexibly, and represent their ideas using two- and three-dimensional hand- and computer-assisted drawing and modelling techniques including the use of appropriate technical language. They further explore the properties and characteristics of materials/ingredients, and carry out tests to determine their suitability for intended

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Standards

Investigating and designing

At Level 8, students use various strategies and sources of information to investigate and research a range of factors relevant to more sophisticated design briefs to which they have contributed. During the design process they clarify their understanding of design brief requirements and their design ideas by gathering, responding to and providing feedback to others. They develop evaluation criteria from the design brief to inform their judgments during the design process. They use a variety of drawing and modelling techniques to visualise design ideas and concepts. Students demonstrate understanding of design elements and principles and use appropriate technical language.

Students understand and logically sequence major stages of production, and calculate and...

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English

English Level Description

The English curriculum is built around the three interrelated strands of Language, Literature and Literacy. Teaching and learning programs should balance and integrate all three strands. Together the strands focus on developing students’ knowledge, understanding and skills in listening, reading, viewing, speaking, writing and creating. Learning in English builds on concepts, skills and processes...

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English Content Descriptions

Reading and viewing

Language
  1. Analyse how the text structures and language features of persuasive texts, including media texts, vary according to the medium and mode of communication (ACELA1543)
  2. Understand how cohesion in texts is improved by strengthening the internal structure of paragraphs through the use of examples, quotations and substantiation of claims (ACELA1766)
  3. Analyse and examine how effective authors control and use a variety of clause structures, including clauses embedded within the structure of a noun group/phrase or clause (ACELA1545)
  4. Recognise that vocabulary choices contribute to the specificity, abstraction and style of texts (ACELA1547)
  5. Understand how rhetorical devices are used to persuade and how different layers of meaning are developed through the use of metaphor, irony and parody (ACELA1542)
  6. Investigate how visual and multimodal texts allude to or draw on other texts or images to enhance and layer meaning (ACELA1548)
Literature
  1. Explore the ways that ideas and viewpoints in literary texts drawn from different historical, social and cultural contexts may reflect or challenge the values of individuals and groups (ACELT1626)
  2. Understand and explain how combinations of words and images in texts are used to represent particular groups in society, and how texts position readers in relation to those groups (ACELT1628)
  3. Recognise, explain and analyse the ways literary texts draw on readers’ knowledge of other texts and enable new understanding and appreciation of aesthetic qualities (ACELT1629)
  4. Identify and evaluate devices that create tone, for example humour, wordplay, innuendo and parody in poetry, humorous prose, drama or visual texts (ACELT1630)
  5. Explore the interconnectedness of Country and Place, People, Identity and Culture in texts including those by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander authors (ACELT1806)
  6. Interpret and analyse language choices, including sentence patterns, dialogue, imagery and other language features, in short stories, literary essays and plays (ACELT1767)
  7. Recognise and explain differing viewpoints about the world, cultures, individual people and concerns represented in texts (ACELT1807)
Literacy
  1. Apply increasing knowledge of vocabulary, text structures and language features to understand the content of texts (ACELY1733)
  2. Use comprehension strategies to interpret and evaluate texts by reflecting on the validity of content and the credibility of sources, including finding evidence in the text for the author’s point of view (ACELY1734)
  3. Analyse and explain how language has evolved over time and how technology and the media have influenced language use and forms of communication (ACELY1729)
  4. Analyse and evaluate the ways that text structures and language features vary according to the purpose of the text and the ways that referenced sources add authority to a text (ACELY1732)
  5. Explore and explain the ways authors combine different modes and media in creating texts, and the impact of these choices on the viewer/listener (ACELY1735)

Writing

Language
  1. Understand how coherence is created in complex texts through devices like lexical cohesion, ellipsis, grammatical theme and text connectives (ACELA1809)
  2. Understand the effect of nominalisation in the writing of informative and persuasive texts (ACELA1546)
  3. Understand how to apply learned knowledge consistently in order to spell accurately and to learn new words including nominalisations (ACELA1549)
  4. Understand the use of punctuation conventions, including colons, semicolons, dashes and brackets in formal and informal texts (ACELA1544)
Literature
  1. Experiment with particular language features drawn from different types of texts, including combinations of language and visual choices to create new texts (ACELT1768)
  2. Create literary texts that draw upon text structures and language features of other texts for particular purposes and effects (ACELT1632)
Literacy
  1. Create imaginative, informative and persuasive texts that raise issues, report events and advance opinions, using deliberate language and textual choices, and including digital elements as appropriate (ACELY1736)
  2. Experiment with text structures and language features to refine and clarify ideas to improve the effectiveness of students’ own texts (ACELY1810)
  3. Use a range of software, including word processing programs, to create, edit and publish texts imaginatively (ACELY1738)

Speaking and Listening

Language
  1. Understand the influence and impact that the English language has had on other languages or dialects and how English has been influenced in return (ACELA1540)
  2. Understand how conventions of speech adopted by communities influence the identities of people in those communities (ACELA1541)
Literature
  1. Share, reflect on, clarify and evaluate opinions and arguments about aspects of literary texts (ACELT1627)
Literacy
  1. Interpret the stated and implied meanings in spoken texts, and use evidence to support or challenge different perspectives (ACELY1730)
  2. Use interaction skills for identified purposes, using voice and language conventions to suit different situations, selecting vocabulary, modulating voice and using elements such as music, images and sound for specific effects (ACELY1808)
  3. Plan, rehearse and deliver presentations, selecting and sequencing appropriate content, including multimodal elements, to reflect a diversity of viewpoints (ACELY1731)

English Achievement Standard

Reading and viewing

By the end of Level 8, students understand how the selection of text structures is influenced by the selection of language mode and how this varies for different purposes and audiences. They explain how language features, images and vocabulary are used to represent different ideas and issues in texts. They interpret texts, questioning the reliability of sources of ideas and information. They select evidence from the text to show how events, situations and people can be represented from different viewpoints.

Writing

Students understand how the selection of language features can be used for particular purposes and effects. They explain the effectiveness of language choices they use to influence the audience. Through combining ideas, images and language features from other texts students show how ideas can be expressed in new ways. They create texts for different purposes selecting language to influence audience response. When creating and editing texts for specific effects, they take into account intended purposes and the needs and interests of audiences. They demonstrate understanding of grammar, select vocabulary for effect and use accurate spelling and punctuation.

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Health and Physical Education

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of Level 8 standards in Health and Physical Education, they develop and refine a range of movement and manipulative skills; for example, gymnastics routines and high-level ball skills such as shooting a basket in basketball or spiking a volleyball. They participate in a variety of team and individual games and activities, using and building on skills and strategies from other sports as well as continuing to develop new, sport-specific, skills.

Students develop their swimming stroke techniques and proficiency in a range of water safety skills as they participate within an aquatic environment. This could include: swimming for a continuous distance of 150 metres, changing between freestyle, backstroke, breaststroke or survival backstroke; and while...

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Standards

Movement and physical activity

At Level 8, students proficiently perform complex movement and manipulative skills. Students measure their own fitness and physical activity levels and identify factors that influence motivation to be physically active. They maintain regular participation in moderate to vigorous physical activity and analyse and evaluate their level of involvement in physical activity. They combine motor skills, strategic thinking and tactical knowledge to improve individual and team performance.

Health knowledge and promotion

At Level 8, students describe the physical, emotional and social changes that occur as a result of the adolescent stage of the lifespan and the factors that influence their own development. They describe the effect of family and community expectations...

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History

History Level Description

The Ancient to the Modern World

The Level 8 curriculum provides study of history from the end of the ancient period to the beginning of the modern period, c.650 AD (CE) – 1750. This was when major civilisations around the...

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Key inquiry questions

  1. How did societies change from the end of the ancient period to the beginning of the modern age?
  2. What key beliefs and values emerged and how did they influence societies?
  3. What were the causes and effects of contact between societies in this period?
  4. Which significant people, groups and ideas from this period have influenced the world today?

History Content Descriptions

Historical Knowledge and Understanding

Overview

The following content is taught as part of an overview for the historical period. It is not intended to be taught in depth. An overview will constitute approximately 10% of the total teaching time for the level. Overview content identifies important features of the period, c.650 AD (CE) - 1750, as part of an expansive chronology that helps students understand broad patterns of historical change. As such, the overview provides the broader context for the teaching of depth study content and can be built into various parts of a teaching and learning program. This means that overview content can be used to give students an introduction to the historical period; to make the links to and between the depth studies; and to consolidate understanding through a review of the period.

Overview content for the ancient to modern world (Byzantine, Celtic, Anglo-Saxon, Viking, Ottoman, Khmer, Mongols, Yuan and Ming dynasties, Aztec, Inca) includes the following:

  1. the transformation of the Roman world and the spread of Christianity and Islam
  2. key features of the medieval world (feudalism, trade routes, voyages of discovery, contact and conflict)
  3. the emergence of ideas about the world and the place of people in it by the end of the period (such as the Renaissance, the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment).
Depth studies
There are three depth studies for this historical period. For each depth study, there are up to four electives that focus on a particular society, event, movement or development. It is expected that ONE elective will be studied in detail. A depth study will constitute approximately 30% of the total teaching time for the level. The content in each depth study elective is designed to allow detailed study of specific aspects of this historical period. As part of a teaching and learning program, depth study content can be integrated with the overview content and/or with other depth study electives.
1 The Western and Islamic World
Students investigate ONE of these societies/empires from the Western or Islamic world in depth: the Vikings or Medieval Europe or the Ottoman Empire or Renaissance Italy.
  1. The Ottoman Empire (c.1299 – c.1683)
    1. The way of life in the Ottoman Empire (social, cultural, economic and political features) and the roles and relationships of different groups in society (ACDSEH009)
    2. Significant developments and/or cultural achievements that reflect the power and influence of the Ottoman Empire, such as the fall of Constantinople in 1453 AD (CE), art and architecture. (ACDSEH053)
    3. Relationships with subject peoples, including the policy of religious tolerance (ACDSEH054)
    4. The role of significant individuals such as Selim I or Suleiman the Magnificent in maintaining the strength and influence of the Ottoman Empire (ACDSEH055)
    OR
  2. Renaissance Italy (c.1400 – c.1600)
    1. The way of life in Renaissance Italy (social, cultural, economic and political features) and the roles and relationships of different groups in society (ACDSEH010)
    2. Significant developments and/or cultural achievements that reflect the concentration of wealth and power in the city-states, such as art and learning (ACDSEH056)
    3. Relationships between rulers and ruled in ONE Italian city-state such as Florence or Naples (ACDSEH057)
    4. The role and achievements of significant individuals such as Lucrezia Borgia, Galileo, Leonardo da Vinci, Niccolo Machiavelli (ACDSEH058)
    5. The spread of Renaissance culture to the rest of Europe, and its legacy (ACDSEH059)
    OR
  3. The Vikings (c.790 – c.1066)
    1. The way of life in Viking society (social, cultural, economic and political features) and the roles and relationships of different groups in society (ACDSEH007)
    2. Significant developments and/or cultural achievements that led to Viking expansion, including weapons and shipbuilding, and the extent of their trade (ACDSEH047)
    3. Viking conquests and relationships with subject peoples, including the perspectives of monks, changes in the way of life of the English, and the Norman invasion (ACDSEH048)
    4. The role of a significant individual in the expansion of Viking settlement and influence, such as Erik the Red or Leif Ericson (ACDSEH049)
    OR
  4. Medieval Europe (c.590 – c.1500)
    1. The way of life in Medieval Europe (social, cultural, economic and political features) and the roles and relationships of different groups in society (ACDSEH008)
    2. Significant developments and/or cultural achievements, such as changing relations between Islam and the West (including the Crusades), architecture, medieval manuscripts and music (ACDSEH050)
    3. Continuity and change in society in ONE of the following areas: crime and punishment; military and defence systems; towns, cities and commerce (ACDSEH051)
    4. The dominance of the Catholic Church and the role of significant individuals such as Charlemagne (ACDSEH052)
2 The Asia-Pacific World
Students investigate ONE of these Asia-Pacific societies in depth: the Angkor/Khmer Empire or Shogunate Japan or the Polynesian expansion across the Pacific. N.B. Where appropriate, this depth study may include some reference beyond the end of the period c.1750.
  1. Angkor/Khmer Empire (c.802 – c.1431)
    1. The way of life in the Khmer Empire, including, social, cultural, economic and political features (including the role of the king ). (ACDSEH011)
    2. The reasons for Angkor’s rise to prominence, including wealth from trade and agriculture (ACDSEH060)
    3. The cultural achievements of the Khmer civilisation, including its system of water management and the building of the temples of Angkor (ACDSEH061)
    4. Theories of the decline of Angkor, such as the overuse of water resources, neglect of public works as a result of ongoing war, and the effects of climate change (ACDSEH062)
    OR
  2. Japan under the Shoguns’ (c.794 – 1867)
    1. The way of life in shogunate Japan, including social, cultural, economic and political features (including the feudal system and the increasing power of the shogun) (ACDSEH012)
    2. The role of the Tokugawa Shogunate in reimposing a feudal system (based on daimyo and samurai) and the increasing control of the Shogun over foreign trade. (ACDSEH063)
    3. The use of environmental resources in Shogunate Japan and the forestry and land use policies of the Tokugawa Shogunate (ACDSEH064)
    4. Theories about the decline of the Shogunate, including modernisation and westernisation, through the adoption of Western arms and technology (ACDSEH065)
    OR
  3. The Polynesian expansion across the Pacific (c.700 – 1756)
    1. Theories about the origin and spread of Polynesian settlers throughout the Pacific (ACDSEH013)
    2. The way of life in ONE Polynesian society, including social, cultural, economic and political features, such as the role of the ariki in Maori and in Rapa Nui society (Easter Island) (ACDSEH066)
    3. The cultural achievements of ONE Polynesian society, such as the Ta moko and hangi in Maori society OR the moai constructed on Easter Island (ACDSEH067)
    4. The way Polynesian societies used environmental resources (sustainably and unsustainably), including the extinction of the moa in New Zealand, the use of religious/supernatural threats to conserve resources, and the exploitation of Easter Island’s palm trees (ACDSEH068)
3 Expanding contacts
Students investigate ONE of the following historical developments in depth to explore the interaction of societies in this period: the Mongol expansion or the Black Death in Africa, Asia and Europe or the Spanish conquest of the Aztecs and Incas.
  1. Mongol Expansion (c.1206 – c.1368)
    1. The nomadic lifestyle of the Mongols and the rise of Temujin (Genghis Khan) (ACDSEH014)
    2. The organisation of the Mongol army under Genghis Khan and the treatment of conquered peoples, such as the codification of laws and exemption of teachers, lawyers and artists from taxes (ACDSEH077)
    3. The extent of the Mongol expansion as one of the largest land empires in history, including life in China before, during and after the Mongol conquest (ACDSEH078)
    4. The consequences of the Mongol expansion, including contributions to European knowledge and trade routes (ACDSEH079)
    OR
  2. The Black Death in Asia, Europe and Africa (14th century plague)
    1. Living conditions and religious beliefs in the 14th century, including life expectancy, medical knowledge and beliefs about the power of God (ACDSEH015)
    2. The role of expanding trade between Europe and Asia in the Black Death, including the origin and spread of the disease (ACDSEH069)
    3. The causes and symptoms of the Black Death and the responses of different groups in society to the spread of the disease, such as the flagellants and monasteries (ACDSEH070)
    4. The effects of the Black Death on Asian, European and African populations, and conflicting theories about the impact of the plague (ACDSEH071)
    5. Other immediate and long-term effects of the Black Death, including labour shortages, peasant uprisings, the weakening of feudal structures, and increased social mobility (ACDSEH072)
    OR
  3. The Spanish Conquest of the Americas (c.1492 – c.1572)
    1. Pre-Columbian life in the Americas, including social organisation, city life and beliefs. (ACDSEH016)
    2. When, how and why the Spanish arrived in the Americas, and where they went, including the various societies and geographical features they encountered (ACDSEH073)
    3. The nature of the interaction between the Spanish and the indigenous populations, with a particular focus on either the Aztecs OR Incas (ACDSEH074)
    4. The impact of the conquest on the Aztecs OR Incas as well as on the wider world, such as the introduction of new diseases, horses and gunpowder in the Americas, and new foods and increased wealth in Europe (ACDSEH075)
    5. The longer-term effects of colonisation, including slavery, population changes and lack of control over resources (ACDSEH076)

Historical Skills

Chronology, terms and concepts
  1. Sequence historical events, developments and periods (ACHHS148)
  2. Use historical terms and concepts (ACHHS149)
Historical questions and research
  1. Identify a range of questions about the past to inform an historical inquiry (ACHHS150)
  2. Identify and locate relevant sources, using ICT and other methods (ACHHS151)
Analysis and use of sources
  1. Identify the origin and purpose of primary and secondary sources (ACHHS152)
  2. Locate, compare, select and use information from a range of sources as evidence (ACHHS153)
  3. Draw conclusions about the usefulness of sources (ACHHS154)
Perspectives and interpretations
  1. Identify and describe points of view, attitudes and values in primary and secondary sources (ACHHS155)
Explanation and communication
  1. Develop texts, particularly descriptions and explanations that use evidence from a range of sources that are acknowledged (ACHHS156)
  2. Use a range of communication forms (oral, graphic, written) and digital technologies (ACHHS157)

History Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 8, students recognise and explain patterns of change and continuity over time. They explain the causes and effects of events and developments. They identify the motives and actions of people at the time. Students explain the significance of individuals and groups and how they were influenced by the beliefs and values of their society. They describe different interpretations of the past.

Students sequence events and developments within a chronological framework with reference to periods of time. When researching, students develop questions to frame an historical inquiry. They analyse, select and organise information from primary and secondary sources and use it as evidence to answer inquiry questions. Students identify and explain different points of view in sources. When interpreting sources, they identify their origin and purpose, and distinguish between fact and opinion. Students develop texts, particularly descriptions and explanations, incorporating analysis. In developing these texts, and organising and presenting their findings, they use historical terms and concepts, evidence identified in sources, and acknowledge their sources of information.

The Humanities - Economics

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of Level 8 standards in Economics, they develop an understanding of the nature of scarcity, opportunity cost and resource allocation, and how these influence the Australian economy.

They consider the use, ownership and management of resources in personal, business and community contexts, and participate in activities in which they begin to appreciate that economic choices involve trade-offs that have both immediate and future consequences. They learn that a market, consisting of buyers and sellers, is one method of allocating resources. Students begin to identify markets in which they participate, and how the interaction of buyers and sellers influences prices. They explore how access to resources is a significant factor in determining income...

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Standards

Economic knowledge and understanding

At Level 8, students explain the nature of the economic problem and how economic choices involve trade-offs that have both immediate and future consequences. They explain key factors that influence the Australian economy, including the quantity and quality of factors involved in production, resource use, ownership and management, and types of businesses. Students make informed economic and consumer decisions, demonstrating the development of personal financial literacy. They describe factors that affect choice of employment and opportunities for current and future work, and explain the relationship between education, training and work opportunities. Students identify and describe ways the government influences economic outcomes at the personal, local and national level.

Economic reasoning and interpretation

At Level 8, students use the inquiry process to plan economics investigations, analyse and interpret data, and form conclusions supported by evidence. They form and express opinions on economic issues that interest and/or impact on them personally, or locally and/or nationally.

The Humanities - Geography

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of Level 8 standards in Geography, they use a variety of geographic tools and skills, together with an inquiry-based approach, to investigate the characteristics of the regions of Australia and those surrounding it: Asia, the Pacific and Antarctica. They explore how and why, over time, human and physical interactions produce changes to the characteristics of regions, for example, settlement patterns and agricultural and urban land use.

Students extend their knowledge and understanding of physical phenomena, including natural hazards, and of the physical processes that produce them. They identify patterns of distribution and occurrence of major physical features and their interrelationship with human activities such as farming, fishing, manufacturing...

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Standards

Geographic knowledge and understanding

At Level 8, students demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the characteristics of the regions of Australia and those surrounding it: Asia, the Pacific and Antarctica. They explain, using examples, how the interaction of physical processes and human activities create variations within the regions. They use evidence and appropriate geographical language to explain contrasts within smaller regions surrounding Australia. Students describe differences in culture, living conditions and outlook, including attitudes to environmental issues, in these regions. They demonstrate understanding of environmental issues based on inquiry and propose ways of ensuring the sustainability of resources.

Geospatial skills

At Level 8, students collect geographical...

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Information and Communications Technology

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of Level 8 standards in Information and Communications Technology, they learn to use a variety of ICT tools and techniques to assist with filtering, classifying, representing, describing and organising ideas, concepts and issues. For example, a graphic/visual organisers such as an interaction outliner can be used to help structure thinking about the actions, reactions and outcomes of two groups associated with an issue; and rule-using software such as databases and spreadsheets enable the filtering and classifying of data and information in order to make more informed decisions. Students begin to use ICT tools and peripherals, such as dataloggers, to support the input of data for sensing, monitoring, measuring or controlling sequences and events...

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Standards

ICT for visualising thinking

At Level 8, students select and apply ICT tools and editing functions that support the filtering, classifying, representing, describing and organising of concepts, issues and ideas. They use rule-using software to assist with problem solving and decision making.

Students retrieve and modify successful approaches to visualising thinking for use in new situations. They explain what features of the new situations influenced their decisions to use particular ICT tools and techniques.

Students use a range of data types, including sound and still and moving images, to record the decisions made and actions taken when developing new understanding and problem solving. They evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of their decisions and actions in the given situations.

ICT ...

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Interpersonal Development

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of Level 8 standards in Interpersonal Development, they develop positive relationships through understanding and respecting others. They participate in activities which enable them to identify the differing values and beliefs held by individuals in local, national and global contexts, and reflect on the impact these may have on relationships.

They learn how to manage their emotions and behaviour in their relationships, especially with peers. They consider the needs of others and ways of responding with appropriate sensitivity, learning to adapt their behaviour and language to suit different settings. Exploring appropriate scenarios, students learn that while they need to value friendship and respect confidentiality, in certain circumstances confidentiality...

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Standards

Building social relationships

At Level 8, students demonstrate respect for the individuality of others and empathise with others in local, national and global contexts, acknowledging the diversity of individuals. They recognise and describe peer influence on their behaviour. Students select and use appropriate strategies to effectively manage individual conflict and assist others in resolution processes.

Working in teams

At Level 8, students accept responsibility as a team member and support other members to share information, explore the ideas of others, and work cooperatively to achieve a shared purpose within a realistic timeframe. They reflect on individual and team outcomes and act to improve their own and the team’s performance.

Languages Pathway 1

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of standards in Languages at Pathway 1 Level 8, they develop their understanding that cultural diversity exists and that customs and traditions vary within countries and over time. They investigate the important elements that make up a language system and the particular functions of grammatical concepts, and learn that words may not have a direct equivalent in another language.

They begin to understand and use the language other than English within the world of teenage experience, on topics related to general interest, topics drawn from other domains and the world of learning. They start to exchange personal information, opinions, ideas, feelings and plans orally and through correspondence. They continue to adapt the language they use to...

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Standards

Communicating in a language other than English

At Pathway 1 Level 8, students recall most of the main ideas, objects and details presented with a topic in the language. They use a range of strategies to assist in listening comprehension.

Students adapt language and gesture appropriately for the role, audience and purpose of the interaction, demonstrating awareness of the cultural and language requirements of a range of situations associated with the topics being studied.

Students participate effectively in interactions such as role-plays and conversations on simple topics. They create simple original text for specific audiences and purposes in print and electronic form. They write paragraphs and linked sequences, using appropriate script and language related to the topic.

Students critically...

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Languages Pathway 2

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of standards in Languages at Pathway 2 Level 8, they develop their understanding that cultural diversity exists and that customs and traditions vary within countries and over time. They understand that these influence Australian life and culture. They also learn about the basic geography and history of the country or countries where the language other than English is used and make comparisons with Australia and other countries associated with the languages they have previously studied.

Students learn why there are similarities and differences between languages, and how these are related. They begin to have a grasp of the history of the language they are studying and its links with other languages.

Students begin to understand and use the...

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Standards

Communicating in a language other than English

At Pathway 2 Level 8, students introduce themselves, greet and farewell others using the appropriate register and reproduce modelled use of language. They exchange simple information on topics such as daily routines and aspects of their world. They talk about themselves in response to questions, and ask questions in response. Students manipulate modelled language. They read or listen to passages and extract basic factual information on defined topics.

Students demonstrate effective sound discrimination. In tone languages, students discern all the tone patterns in slowed speech.

Students describe and use culturally-specific gestures and body language. They show awareness of the language requirements of a range of specific situations related...

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Mathematics

Mathematics Level Description

The proficiency strands Understanding, Fluency, Problem Solving and Reasoning are an integral part of mathematics content across the three content strands: Number and Algebra, Measurement and Geometry, and Statistics and Probability. The proficiencies reinforce the significance of working mathematically within the content and describe how the content is explored or developed. They provide the...

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Mathematics Content Descriptions

Number and Algebra

Number and place value
  1. Use index notation with numbers to establish the index laws with positive integral indices and the zero index (ACMNA182)
  2. Carry out the four operations with rational numbers and integers, using efficient mental and written strategies and appropriate digital technologies (ACMNA183)
Real numbers
  1. Investigate terminating and recurring decimals (ACMNA184)
  2. Investigate the concept of irrational numbers, including π (ACMNA186)
  3. Solve problems involving the use of percentages, including percentage increases and decreases, with and without digital technologies (ACMNA187)
  4. Solve a range of problems involving rates and ratios, with and without digital technologies (ACMNA188)
Money and financial mathematics
  1. Solve problems involving profit and loss, with and without digital technologies (ACMNA189)
Patterns and algebra
  1. Extend and apply the distributive law to the expansion of algebraic expressions (ACMNA190)
  2. Factorise algebraic expressions by identifying numerical factors (ACMNA191)
  3. Simplify algebraic expressions involving the four operations (ACMNA192)
Linear and non-linear relationships
  1. Plot linear relationships on the Cartesian plane with and without the use of digital technologies (ACMNA193)
  2. Solve linear equations using algebraic and graphical techniques. Verify solutions by substitution (ACMNA194)

Measurement and Geometry

Using units of measurement
  1. Choose appropriate units of measurement for area and volume and convert from one unit to another (ACMMG195)
  2. Find perimeters and areas of parallelograms, trapeziums, rhombuses and kites (ACMMG196)
  3. Investigate the relationship between features of circles such as circumference, area, radius and diameter. Use formulas to solve problems involving circumference and area (ACMMG197)
  4. Develop the formulas for volumes of rectangular and triangular prisms and prisms in general. Use formulas to solve problems involving volume (ACMMG198)
  5. Solve problems involving duration, including using 12- and 24-hour time within a single time zone (ACMMG199)
Geometric reasoning
  1. Define congruence of plane shapes using transformations (ACMMG200)
  2. Develop the conditions for congruence of triangles (ACMMG201)
  3. Establish properties of quadrilaterals using congruent triangles and angle properties, and solve related numerical problems using reasoning (ACMMG202)

Statistics and Probability

Chance
  1. Identify complementary events and use the sum of probabilities to solve problems (ACMSP204)
  2. Describe events using language of 'at least', exclusive 'or' (A or B but not both), inclusive 'or' (A or B or both) and 'and'. (ACMSP205)
  3. Represent events in two-way tables and Venn diagrams and solve related problems (ACMSP292)
Data representation and interpretation
  1. Investigate techniques for collecting data, including census, sampling and observation (ACMSP284)
  2. Explore the practicalities and implications of obtaining data through sampling using a variety of investigative processes (ACMSP206)
  3. Explore the variation of means and proportions of random samples drawn from the same population (ACMSP293)
  4. Investigate the effect of individual data values , including outliers, on the mean and median (ACMSP207)

Mathematics Achievement Standard

Number and Algebra

Students use efficient mental and written strategies to make estimates and carry out the four operations with integers, and apply the index laws to whole numbers. They identify and describe rational and irrational numbers in context. Students estimate answers and solve everyday problems involving profit and loss rates, ratios and percentages, with and without the use of digital technology. They simplify a variety of algebraic expressions and connect expansion and factorisation of linear expressions. Students solve linear equations and graph linear relationships on the Cartesian plane.

Measurement and Geometry

Students convert between units of measurement for area and for volume. They find the perimeter and area of parallelograms, rhombuses and kites. Students name the features of circles, calculate circumference and area, and solve problems relating to the volume of prisms. They make sense of time duration in real applications, including the use of 24-hour time. Students identify conditions for the congruence of triangles and deduce the properties of quadrilaterals. They use tools, including digital technology, to construct congruent shapes.

Statistics and Probability

Students explain issues related to the collection of sample data and discuss the effect of outliers on means and medians of the data. They use various approaches, including the use of digital technology, to generate simple random samples from a population. Students model situations with Venn diagrams and two-way tables and explain the use of 'not', 'and' and 'or'. Students choose appropriate language to describe events and experiments. They determine complementary events and calculate the sum of probabilities. 

Personal Learning

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of Level 8 standards in Personal Learning, they explore a range of preferred and non-preferred learning strategies and reflect on how various strategies contribute to their learning, recognising that particular learning tasks may require different strategies. They take greater responsibility for their own learning, making choices and decisions about their learning and considering their strengths and weaknesses.

With support, students identify difficulties in their understanding of new material and develop a range of strategies to aid comprehension and understanding. They use feedback from teachers and other adults beyond the school context to expand their content knowledge, making use of learning opportunities within the school such as specialist...

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Standards

The individual learner

At Level 8, students monitor and describe their progress as learners, identifying their strengths and weaknesses and taking actions to address their weaknesses. They identify a variety of learning habits and adopt those which assist their learning. They identify, select and use an expanded repertoire of learning strategies appropriate to particular tasks. They seek and respond to feedback from peers, teachers and other adults and explain how their ideas have changed to develop and refine their content knowledge and understanding.

Students demonstrate an awareness of different cultural and societal beliefs, values and practices, identifying and discussing the effect of ethical issues on learning and working with others. With support, students determine learning...

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Science

Science Level Description

The Science Inquiry Skills and Science as a Human Endeavour strands are described across a two-level band. In their planning, schools and teachers refer to the expectations outlined in the Achievement Standard and also to the content of the Science Understanding strand for the relevant level to ensure that these two strands are addressed over the two-level period. The three strands of the curriculum...

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Science Content Descriptions

Science Understanding

Biological sciences
  1. Cells are the basic units of living things and have specialised structures and functions (ACSSU149)
  2. Multi-cellular organisms contain systems of organs that carry out specialised functions that enable them to survive and reproduce (ACSSU150)
Chemical sciences
  1. The properties of the different states of matter can be explained in terms of the motion and arrangement of particles (ACSSU151)
  2. Differences between elements, compounds and mixtures can be described at a particle level (ACSSU152)
  3. Chemical change involves substances reacting to form new substances (ACSSU225)
Earth and space sciences
  1. Sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic rocks contain minerals and are formed by processes that occur within Earth over a variety of timescales (ACSSU153)
Physical sciences
  1. Energy appears in different forms including movement (kinetic energy), heat and potential energy, and causes change within systems (ACSSU155)

Science as a Human Endeavour

Nature and development of science
  1. Scientific knowledge changes as new evidence becomes available, and some scientific discoveries have significantly changed people’s understanding of the world (ACSHE134)
  2. Science knowledge can develop through collaboration and connecting ideas across the disciplines of science (ACSHE226)
Use and influence of science
  1. Science and technology contribute to finding solutions to a range of contemporary issues; these solutions may impact on other areas of society and involve ethical considerations (ACSHE135)
  2. Science understanding influences the development of practices in areas of human activity such as industry, agriculture and marine and terrestrial resource management (ACSHE136)
  3. People use understanding and skills from across the disciplines of science in their occupations (ACSHE227)

Science Inquiry Skills

Questioning and predicting
  1. Identify questions and problems that can be investigated scientifically and make predictions based on scientific knowledge (ACSIS139)
Planning and conducting
  1. Collaboratively and individually plan and conduct a range of investigation types, including fieldwork and experiments, ensuring safety and ethical guidelines are followed (ACSIS140)
  2. In fair tests, measure and control variables, and select equipment to collect data with accuracy appropriate to the task (ACSIS141)
Processing and analysing data and information
  1. Construct and use a range of representations, including graphs, keys and models to represent and analyse patterns or relationships, including using digital technologies as appropriate (ACSIS144)
  2. Summarise data, from students’ own investigations and secondary sources, and use scientific understanding to identify relationships and draw conclusions (ACSIS145)
Evaluating
  1. Reflect on the method used to investigate a question or solve a problem, including evaluating the quality of the data collected, and identify improvements to the method (ACSIS146)
  2. Use scientific knowledge and findings from investigations to evaluate claims (ACSIS234)
Communicating
  1. Communicate ideas, findings and solutions to problems using scientific language and representations using digital technologies as appropriate (ACSIS148)

Science Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 8, students investigate different forms of energy and explain how energy transfers and transformations cause change in simple systems. They use the particle model to predict, compare and explain the physical and chemical properties and behaviours of substances. They describe and apply techniques to separate pure substances from mixtures. They provide evidence for observed chemical changes in terms of colour change, heat change, gas production and precipitate formation. They use equations to describe simple chemical reactions. They analyse the relationship between structure and function at cell, organ and body system levels. They use dichotomous keys to identify and classify living things. They explain how living organisms can be classified into major taxonomic groups based on observable similarities and differences. They predict the effect of environmental changes on feeding relationships. They distinguish between different types of simple machines and predict, represent and analyse the effects of unbalanced forces, including Earth’s gravity, on motion.  They compare processes of rock formation, including the time scales involved, and analyse how the sustainable...

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Thinking Processes

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of Level 8 standards in Thinking Processes, they participate in increasingly complex investigations and activities in which they seek evidence to support their conclusions, and investigate the validity of other people’s ideas; for example, by testing the credibility of differing accounts of the same event, questioning conclusions based on very small or biased samples of data, and identifying and questioning generalisations. From such investigations and activities, students learn to make and justify changes to their thinking and develop awareness that others may have perceptions different from their own.

Students draw on an increasing range of contexts to formulate the questions that drive their investigations. They participate in challenging...

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Standards

Reasoning, processing and inquiry

At Level 8, students use a range of question types, and locate and select relevant information from varied sources when undertaking investigations. When identifying and synthesising relevant information, they use a range of appropriate strategies of reasoning and analysis to evaluate evidence and consider their own and others’ points of view. They use a range of discipline-based methodologies. They complete activities focusing on problem solving and decision making which involve an increasing number of variables and solutions.

Creativity

At Level 8, students apply creative thinking strategies to explore possibilities and generate multiple options, problem definitions and solutions. They demonstrate creativity, in the ways they engage with and explore...

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