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Level 4


The Arts

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of Level 4 standards in the Arts, they apply and develop their arts knowledge by exploring arts processes and ways to communicate concepts arising from their personal experiences and from the world around them. Through the arts disciplines of Dance, Drama, Media, Music and Visual Arts – Art (two-dimensional and three-dimensional), both individually and in combination, they communicate ideas, observations and feelings using a range of media, materials, equipment and technologies to make arts works; for example, a class presentation could feature the performance of a song from another culture in combination with a traditional dance and/or accompanied by a slide-show presentation featuring paintings and carvings which explore the theme of the song.

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Creating and making

At Level 4, students create and present works in a range of arts forms that communicate experiences, ideas, concepts, observations and feelings. They select and combine a range of arts elements, principles and/or conventions, and use a range of skills, techniques and processes, media, materials, equipment and technologies. They show evidence of arts knowledge when planning arts works for different purposes and audiences and identify techniques and features of other people’s works that inform their own arts making. They refine their work in response to feedback and self-evaluation.

Exploring and responding

At Level 4, students comment on the exploration, development and presentation of their arts works, including the use of specific arts elements, principles and/or conventions, skills, techniques and processes. They identify and describe key features of arts works from their own and other cultures, and use arts language to describe and discuss the communication of ideas, feelings and purpose in their own and other people’s arts works.

Civics and Citizenship

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of Level 4 standards in Civics and Citizenship, they build on their understanding of Australian society and investigate some of the different cultural groups, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (ATSI) communities, that make up the Australian community. They learn about the contributions that people from diverse groups have made to many aspects of the Australian way of life. This includes contributions to the arts, industry, medicine and science, as well as to other aspects of their life including food, festivals and sporting events.  They explore the ways that Australians are connected to other regional and global communities.

Students learn about some key events which contributed to the development of the Australian nation....

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Civic knowledge and understanding

At Level 4, students demonstrate understanding of the contribution of people from the many culturally diverse groups that make up the Australian community. They sequence and describe some key events in Australia’s democratic history. They describe symbols and emblems of national life in Australia and identify values related to symbols and national celebrations and commemorations. They describe the purpose of government, some familiar government services and the roles of some leaders and representatives. They explain the difference between rules and laws and describe the qualities of a good law. They explain why protection and care for the natural and built environment is important.

Community engagement

At Level 4, students contribute to the development...

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Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of Level 6 standards in Communication, they listen attentively when required and learn to respond and interject appropriately. They learn about appropriate body language when reacting to a speaker and use feedback from peers and the teacher on their own body language to improve their reactions. They practise paraphrasing what a speaker has said to check meaning and ask clarifying questions where meaning is unclear.

Students explore a range of aural, written and visual communication forms such as the Internet, film, texts and music which illustrate a variety of perspectives on a range of topics and ideas. They learn how to identify the main message, develop their own interpretation, and provide evidence to support it. They explore reasons for other...

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In Communication, standards for assessing and reporting on student achievement are introduced at Level 5. The learning focus statements for Foundation to Level 4 provide advice about learning experiences that will assist students to work towards the achievement of the standards at Level 6.

Design, Creativity and Technology

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of Level 4 standards in Design, Creativity and Technology, they begin to provide input into the development of design briefs. They generate ideas from a variety of sources, and recognise that their designs have to meet a range of different requirements. They learn to make realistic plans for achieving their aims and recognise that they are constrained by the availability of resources. They clarify ideas when asked, and use words, labelled sketches and models to communicate the details of their designs.

Students learn to describe ideas and concepts about design, materials/ingredients and technological systems in simple terms. For example, how and why a drawing is annotated; how materials/ingredients are classified; the systems components that are...

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Investigating and designing

At Level 4 students, individually and in teams, generate ideas based on a design brief, demonstrating understanding that designs may need to meet a range of different requirements. They use words, labelled sketches and models to communicate the details of their designs, and clarify ideas when asked. They identify simple systems components and common materials/ingredients and explain the characteristics and properties that make them suitable for use in products. Students think ahead about the order of their work and list basic steps to make the product or system they have designed.


At Level 4, students use their list of steps and are able to choose appropriate tools, equipment and techniques to alter and combine materials/ingredients and assemble...

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English Level Description

The English curriculum is built around the three interrelated strands of Language, Literature and Literacy. Teaching and learning programs should balance and integrate all three strands. Together the strands focus on developing students’ knowledge, understanding and skills in listening, reading, viewing, speaking, writing and creating. Learning in English builds on concepts, skills and processes...

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English Content Descriptions

Reading and viewing

  1. Understand how texts vary in complexity and technicality depending on the approach to the topic, the purpose and the intended audience (ACELA1490)
  2. Identify features of online texts that enhance readability including text, navigation, links, graphics and layout (ACELA1793)
  3. Explore the effect of choices when framing an image, placement of elements in the image, and salience on composition of still and moving images in a range of types of texts (ACELA1496)
  4. Understand how adverb groups/phrases and prepositional phrases work in different ways to provide circumstantial details about an activity (ACELA1495)
  5. Investigate how quoted (direct) and reported (indirect) speech work in different types of text (ACELA1494)
  1. Discuss how authors and illustrators make stories exciting, moving and absorbing and hold readers’ interest by using various techniques, for example character development and plot tension (ACELT1605)
  2. Make connections between the ways different authors may represent similar storylines, ideas and relationships (ACELT1602)
  3. Understand, interpret and experiment with a range of devices and deliberate word play in poetry and other literary texts, for example nonsense words, spoonerisms, neologisms and puns (ACELT1606)
  4. Use metalanguage to describe the effects of ideas, text structures and language features of literary texts (ACELT1604)
  1. Identify and explain language features of texts from earlier times and compare with the vocabulary, images, layout and content of contemporary texts (ACELY1686)
  2. Identify characteristic features used in imaginative, informative and persuasive texts to meet the purpose of the text (ACELY1690)
  3. Read different types of texts by combining contextual , semantic, grammatical and phonic knowledge using text processing strategies for example monitoring meaning, cross checking and reviewing (ACELY1691)
  4. Use comprehension strategies to build literal and inferred meaning to expand content knowledge, integrating and linking ideas and analysing and evaluating texts (ACELY1692)


  1. Understand how texts are made cohesive through the use of linking devices including pronoun reference and text connectives (ACELA1491)
  2. Understand that the meaning of sentences can be enriched through the use of noun groups/phrases and verb groups/phrases and prepositional phrases (ACELA1493)
  3. Incorporate new vocabulary from a range of sources into students’ own texts including vocabulary encountered in research (ACELA1498)
  4. Understand how to use strategies for spelling words, including spelling rules, knowledge of morphemic word families, spelling generalisations, and letter combinations including double letters (ACELA1779)
  5. Recognise homophones and know how to use context to identify correct spelling (ACELA1780)
  6. Recognise how quotation marks are used in texts to signal dialogue, titles and quoted (direct) speech (ACELA1492)
  1. Create literary texts by developing storylines, characters and settings (ACELT1794)
  2. Create literary texts that explore students’ own experiences and imagining (ACELT1607)
  1. Plan, draft and publish imaginative, informative and persuasive texts containing key information and supporting details for a widening range of audiences, demonstrating increasing control over text structures and language features (ACELY1694)
  2. Reread and edit for meaning by adding, deleting or moving words or word groups to improve content and structure (ACELY1695)
  3. Write using clearly-formed joined letters, and develop increased fluency and automaticity (ACELY1696)
  4. Use a range of software including word processing programs to construct, edit and publish written text, and select, edit and place visual, print and audio elements (ACELY1697)

Speaking and Listening

  1. Understand that Standard Australian English is one of many social dialects used in Australia, and that while it originated in England it has been influenced by many other languages (ACELA1487)
  2. Understand that social interactions influence the way people engage with ideas and respond to others for example when exploring and clarifying the ideas of others, summarising their own views and reporting them to a larger group (ACELA1488)
  3. Understand differences between the language of opinion and feeling and the language of factual reporting or recording (ACELA1489)
  1. Discuss literary experiences with others, sharing responses and expressing a point of view (ACELT1603)
  1. Interpret ideas and information in spoken texts and listen for key points in order to carry out tasks and use information to share and extend ideas and information (ACELY1687)
  2. Use interaction skills such as acknowledging another’s point of view and linking students’ response to the topic, using familiar and new vocabulary and a range of vocal effects such as tone, pace, pitch and volume to speak clearly and coherently (ACELY1688)
  3. Plan, rehearse and deliver presentations incorporating learned content and taking into account the particular purposes and audiences (ACELY1689)

English Achievement Standard

Reading and viewing

By the end of Level 4, students understand that texts have different structures depending on the purpose and audience. They explain how language features, images and vocabulary are used to engage the interest of audiences. They describe literal and implied meaning connecting ideas in different texts. They express preferences for particular texts, and respond to others’ viewpoints.


Students use language features to create coherence and add detail to their texts. They understand how to express an opinion based on information in a text. They create texts that show understanding of how images and detail can be used to extend key ideas. Students create structured texts to explain ideas for different audiences. They demonstrate understanding of grammar, select vocabulary from a range of resources and use accurate spelling and punctuation, editing their work to improve meaning.

Speaking and Listening

Students listen for key points in discussions. They use language features to create coherence and add detail to their texts. They understand how to express an opinion based on information in a text. They create texts that show understanding of how images and detail...

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Health and Physical Education

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of Level 4 standards in Health and Physical Education, they practise and use complex manipulative and locomotor skills in a range of movement environments (indoor, outdoor and aquatic). They practise and develop competency in a range of complex motor skills such as leaping, dodging, the over-arm throw, dribbling and striking balls, cart wheeling and handstanding. In aquatic environments they practise a range of movements such as: propelling the body on the front and back using freestyle, backstroke, breaststroke and survival backstroke for 10 to 20 metres; and a land-based rescue. They discuss the performance criteria of motor skills and practise observing a partner’s performance. Through modified major games (for example, games with modified...

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Movement and physical activity

At Level 4, students perform a broad range of complex motor skills. They demonstrate a wide variety of motor skills and apply them to basic, sport-specific situations. They create and perform coordinated movement sequences that contain a variety of motor skills and movement patterns. They participate regularly in physical activities for the purpose of improving skill and health, and identify and describe the components of health-related fitness. They begin to use basic games’ tactics. They work with others to achieve goals in both cooperative and competitive sporting and games’ situations, explain the concept of fair play, and respect the roles of officials. Students follow safety principles in games and activities.

Health knowledge and promotion

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History Level Description

First Contacts

The Level 4 curriculum introduces world history and the movement of peoples. Beginning with the history of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, students examine European exploration and...

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Key inquiry questions

  1. Why did the great journeys of exploration occur?
  2. What was life like for Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Peoples before the arrival of the Europeans?
  3. Why did the Europeans settle in Australia?
  4. What was the nature and consequence of contact between Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Peoples and early traders, explorers and settlers?

History Content Descriptions

Historical Knowledge and Understanding

First Contacts
  1. The diversity and longevity of Australia’s first peoples and the ways Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander peoples are connected to Country and Place (land, sea, waterways and skies) and the implications for their daily lives. (ACHHK077)
  2. The journey(s) of AT LEAST ONE world navigator, explorer or trader up to the late eighteenth century, including their contacts with other societies and any impacts. (ACHHK078)
  3. Stories of the First Fleet, including reasons for the journey, who travelled to Australia, and their experiences following arrival. (ACHHK079)
  4. The nature of contact between Aboriginal people and/or Torres Strait Islanders and others, for example, the Macassans and the Europeans, and the effects of these interactions on, for example families and the environment (ACHHK080)

Historical Skills

Chronology, terms and concepts
  1. Sequence historical people and events (ACHHS081)
  2. Use historical terms (ACHHS082)
Historical questions and research
  1. Pose a range of questions about the past (ACHHS083)
  2. Identify sources (ACHHS216)
Analysis and use of sources
  1. Locate relevant information from sources provided (ACHHS084)
Perspectives and interpretations
  1. Identify different points of view (ACHHS085)
Explanation and communication
  1. Develop texts, particularly narratives (ACHHS086)
  2. Use a range of communication forms (oral, graphic, written) and digital technologies (ACHHS087)

History Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 4, students explain how and why life changed in the past, and identify aspects of the past that remained the same. They describe the experiences of an individual or group over time. They recognise the significance of events in bringing about change.

Students sequence events and people (their lifetime) in chronological order to identify key dates. They pose a range of questions about the past. They identify sources (written, physical, visual, oral), and locate information to answer these questions. They recognise different points of view. Students develop and present texts, including narratives, using historical terms.

The Humanities

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of Level 4 standards in the Humanities, they consider the features and characteristics of their local area and Victoria.

Students investigate the human and physical characteristics of their local area and other parts of Victoria and consider features of their local community that have changed over time. They learn about settlement patterns, major land uses, communication networks, and the location and variety of national parks in Victoria. They begin to make some simple comparisons between local and other Victorian environments: natural features, climate, land use and types of human activities. Students develop awareness and understanding of the effects of people's interactions with their environment and the ways in which these affect their lives...

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Humanities knowledge and understanding

At Level 4, students describe from direct observation or observation of a variety of media, the human and physical characteristics of their local area and other parts of Victoria. They describe how people use and affect different environments in Victoria.

Humanities skills

At Level 4, students draw simple maps and plans of familiar environments observing basic mapping conventions. They identify the location of places on a simple map using an alphanumeric grid and describe direction using the four cardinal compass points. Using atlas maps and a globe, they locate and name the states and territories of Australia.

In the Humanities, achievement standards for History are introduced from Foundation level. Standards for the other Humanities domains are introduced from level 4.

Level 4 HistoryAC

The curriculum (content descriptions and achievement standards) for HistoryAC Foundation to Level 4 is located here.

Information and Communications Technology

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of Level 4 standards in Information and Communications Technology (ICT), they develop skills in using ICT for problem solving, expressing ideas, and presenting information to different audiences. Working in all areas of the curriculum, students explore a range of ICT tools (for example, basic editing tools such as word processing) and simple techniques for visualising thinking. They also use simple graphic organisers such as concept maps and sequence charts to provide a framework for visualising thinking. In particular they use tools that assist in sequencing, and in identifying relationships between, ideas, facts and concepts. Students save their visualising thinking files to folders and when new but similar learning situations arise, they retrieve...

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ICT for visualising thinking

At Level 4, students use ICT tools to list ideas, order them into logical sequences, and identify relationships between them. Students retrieve their saved visualising thinking strategies and edit them for use in new, but similar situations. They explain how these strategies can be used for different problems or situations.

ICT for creating

At Level 4, students organise their files into folders classified in a way that is meaningful to them. Students explain the purpose of passwords for accessing files stored on networks. They follow simple plans and use tools and a range of data types to create information products designed to inform, persuade, entertain or educate particular audiences. They create information products to assist in problem solving in all...

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Interpersonal Development

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of Level 4 standards in Interpersonal Development, they interact with their peers, older and younger students, and adults in both informal and formal contexts. They develop their skills and strategies for getting to know and understand others within increasingly complex situations. With teacher support, they identify different types of friendships and relationships. They discuss the expectations they have of friendship and relationship groups and acknowledge the expectations that others have of them. They recognise that relationships change and that positive relationships do not depend on always agreeing with one another.

Students are encouraged to think about their values and how these affect their feelings and behaviour. They are supported to...

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Building social relationships

At Level 4, students demonstrate respect for others and exhibit appropriate behaviour for maintaining friendships with other people. They support each other by sharing ideas and materials, offering assistance, giving appropriate feedback and acknowledging individual differences. They work with others to reduce, avoid and resolve conflict.

Working in teams

At Level 4, students cooperate with others in teams for agreed purposes, taking roles and following guidelines established within the task. They describe and evaluate their own contribution and the team’s progress towards the achievement of agreed goals.

Languages Pathway 1

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of standards in Languages at Pathway 1 Level 6, they begin to understand and use the language other than English in relation to their personal world, countries where the language is spoken (for example, its geography, history, aspects of shopping) and the world of the imagination. They begin to collect information in the language (for example, from the Internet or from modified texts). They start to explore the beliefs and lifestyles of people from other countries who now live in Australia. In preparation for Level 6 standards, students need to develop the knowledge and skills described in the phases of learning.

Students consolidate previously learnt language and extend their personal vocabulary and knowledge of language structures. They read...

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In Languages Pathway 1, standards for assessing and reporting achievement are introduced at Level 5. Schools that provide language programs prior to Level 5 should refer to the Languages phases of learning, which provide a typical sequence of second language development. The  Foundation to Level 4 learning focus statements provide advice for teachers about learning experiences that will assist students to work towards the achievement of the standards at Level 6.


Mathematics Level Description

The proficiency strands Understanding, Fluency, Problem Solving and Reasoning are an integral part of mathematics content across the three content strands: Number and Algebra, Measurement and Geometry, and Statistics and Probability. The proficiencies reinforce the significance of working mathematically within the content and describe how the content is explored or developed. They provide the...

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Mathematics Content Descriptions

Number and Algebra

Number and place value
  1. Investigate and use the properties of odd and even numbers (ACMNA071)
  2. Recognise, represent and order numbers to at least tens of thousands (ACMNA072)
  3. Apply place value to partition, rearrange and regroup numbers to at least tens of thousands to assist calculations and solve problems (ACMNA073)
  4. Investigate number sequences involving multiples of 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, and 9 (ACMNA074)
  5. Recall multiplication facts up to 10 × 10 and related division facts (ACMNA075)
  6. Develop efficient mental and written strategies and use appropriate digital technologies for multiplication and for division where there is no remainder (ACMNA076)
Fractions and decimals
  1. Investigate equivalent fractions used in contexts (ACMNA077)
  2. Count by quarters halves and thirds, including with mixed numerals. Locate and represent these fractions on a number line (ACMNA078)
  3. Recognise that the place value system can be extended to tenths and hundredths. Make connections between fractions and decimal notation (ACMNA079)
Money and financial mathematics
  1. Solve problems involving purchases and the calculation of change to the nearest five cents with and without digital technologies (ACMNA080)
Patterns and algebra
  1. Explore and describe number patterns resulting from performing multiplication (ACMNA081)
  2. Solve word problems by using number sentences involving multiplication or division where there is no remainder (ACMNA082)
  3. Use equivalent number sentences involving addition and subtraction to find unknown quantities (ACMNA083)

Measurement and Geometry

Using units of measurement
  1. Use scaled instruments to measure and compare lengths, masses, capacities and temperatures (ACMMG084)
  2. Compare objects using familiar metric units of area and volume (ACMMG290)
  3. Convert between units of time (ACMMG085)
  4. Use am and pm notation and solve simple time problems (ACMMG086)
  1. Compare the areas of regular and irregular shapes by informal means (ACMMG087)
  2. Compare and describe two dimensional shapes that result from combining and splitting common shapes, with and without the use of digital technologies (ACMMG088)
Location and transformation
  1. Use simple scales, legends and directions to interpret information contained in basic maps (ACMMG090)
  2. Create symmetrical patterns, pictures and shapes with and without digital technologies (ACMMG091)
Geometric reasoning
  1. Compare angles and classify them as equal to, greater than or less than a right angle (ACMMG089)

Statistics and Probability

  1. Describe possible everyday events and order their chances of occurring (ACMSP092)
  2. Identify everyday events where one cannot happen if the other happens (ACMSP093)
  3. Identify events where the chance of one will not be affected by the occurrence of the other (ACMSP094)
Data representation and interpretation
  1. Select and trial methods for data collection, including survey questions and recording sheets (ACMSP095)
  2. Construct suitable data displays, with and without the use of digital technologies, from given or collected data. Include tables, column graphs and picture graphs where one picture can represent many data values (ACMSP096)
  3. Evaluate the effectiveness of different displays in illustrating data features including variability (ACMSP097)

Mathematics Achievement Standard

Number and Algebra

Students recall multiplication facts to 10 x 10 and related division facts. They choose appropriate strategies for calculations involving multiplication and division, with and without the use of digital technology, and estimate answers accurately enough for the context. Students solve simple purchasing problems with and without the use of digital technology. They locate familiar fractions on a number line, recognise common equivalent fractions in familiar contexts and make connections between fractions and decimal notations up to two decimal places. Students identify unknown quantities in number sentences. They use the properties of odd and even numbers and describe number patterns resulting from multiplication. Students continue number sequences involving multiples of single-digit numbers and unit fractions, and locate them on a number line.

Measurement and Geometry

Students compare areas of regular and irregular shapes, using informal units. They solve problems involving time duration. Students use scaled instruments to measure length, angle, area, mass, capacity and temperature of shapes and objects. They convert between units of time. Students create symmetrical simple and composite shapes and patterns, with and without the use of digital technology. They classify angles in relation to a right angle. Students interpret information contained in maps.

Statistics and Probability

Students describe different methods for data collection and representation, and evaluate their effectiveness. They construct data displays from given or collected data, with and without the use of digital technology. Students list the probabilities of everyday events. They identify dependent and independent events.

Personal Learning

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of Level 4 standards in Personal Learning, they begin to build on personal strengths by recognising strategies for learning which help them learn most effectively. With support, they use their past learning to inform their future learning, and begin to set learning improvement goals.

Students participate in a diverse range of learning activities that allow them to acknowledge their development as learners. They monitor their learning through strategies such as share time and seeking feedback from the teacher and, where appropriate, their peers.

Students learn to recognise the various positive and negative emotions that may be associated with their learning, and that feelings of uncertainty do not equate with an inability to complete a task. They...

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The individual learner

At Level 4, students describe the factors that affect learning and identify strategies that will enhance their own learning. With support, they identify their learning strengths and weaknesses and learning habits that improve learning outcomes. They seek teacher feedback to develop their content knowledge and understanding. They make and justify some decisions about their learning and, with support, set learning improvement goals. They contribute to the development of protocols that create a positive learning environment in the classroom.

Managing personal learning

At Level 4, students set short-term, achievable goals in relation to specific tasks. They complete short tasks by planning and allocating appropriate time and resources. They undertake some multi-step, extended tasks independently. They comment on task progress and achievements. They manage their feelings in pursuit of goals and demonstrate a positive attitude towards their learning.


Science Level Description

The Science Inquiry Skills and Science as a Human Endeavour strands are described across a two-level band. In their planning, schools and teachers refer to the expectations outlined in the Achievement Standard and also to the content of the Science Understanding strand for the relevant level to ensure that these two strands are addressed over the two-level period. The three strands of the curriculum...

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Science Content Descriptions

Science Understanding

Biological sciences
  1. Living things have life cycles (ACSSU072)
  2. Living things, including plants and animals, depend on each other and the environment to survive (ACSSU073)
Chemical sciences
  1. Natural and processed materials have a range of physical properties; These properties can influence their use (ACSSU074)
Earth and space sciences
  1. Earth’s surface changes over time as a result of natural processes and human activity (ACSSU075)
Physical sciences
  1. Forces can be exerted by one object on another through direct contact or from a distance (ACSSU076)

Science as a Human Endeavour

Nature and development of science
  1. Science involves making predictions and describing patterns and relationships (ACSHE061)
Use and influence of science
  1. Science knowledge helps people to understand the effect of their actions (ACSHE062)

Science Inquiry Skills

Questioning and predicting
  1. With guidance, identify questions in familiar contexts that can be investigated scientifically and predict what might happen based on prior knowledge (ACSIS064)
Planning and conducting
  1. Suggest ways to plan and conduct investigations to find answers to questions (ACSIS065)
  2. Safely use appropriate materials, tools or equipment to make and record observations, using formal measurements and digital technologies as appropriate (ACSIS066)
Processing and analysing data and information
  1. Use a range of methods including tables and simple column graphs to represent data and to identify patterns and trends (ACSIS068)
  2. Compare results with predictions, suggesting possible reasons for findings (ACSIS216)
  1. Reflect on the investigation; including whether a test was fair or not (ACSIS069)
  1. Represent and communicate ideas and findings in a variety of ways such as diagrams, physical representations and simple reports (ACSIS071)

Science Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 4, students explain the effects of Earth’s rotation on its axis. They distinguish between temperature and heat and use examples to illustrate how heat is produced and transferred. They explain how heat is involved in changes of state between solid and liquid. They link the observable properties of materials to their use. They discuss how natural and human processes cause changes to Earth’s surface. They use contact and non-contact forces to describe interactions between objects. They describe structural features common to living things and describe relationships that assist the survival of living things.  They explain how the key stages in the life cycle of a plant or animal relate to growth and species survival. They describe how they use science investigations to identify patterns and respond to questions. They describe situations where science understanding can influence their own and others’ actions.

Students follow instructions to identify questions that they can investigate about familiar contexts and predict likely outcomes from these investigations. They discuss ways to conduct investigations and suggest why their methods were fair or not. They safely use equipment to make and record formal measurements and observations. They use provided tables and simple column graphs to organise and identify patterns in data. Students suggest explanations for observations and compare their findings with their predictions. They use diagrams and complete simple reports to communicate their methods and findings.

Thinking Processes

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of Level 4 standards in Thinking Processes, they explore aspects of their natural, constructed and social world, wondering and developing questions about it. They use a range of sources of information including observations and findings from their own investigations to answer these questions. Students develop strategies for organising and summarising information and reflecting on their thinking. They begin to categorise knowledge and ideas, identify patterns, and form generalisations. They learn to make connections between both new and established ideas and their own knowledge.

With thinking tools to assist them, students begin to ask more focused and clarifying questions. They develop skills in collecting and organising ideas from a range of...

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Reasoning, processing and inquiry

At Level 4, students collect information from a range of sources to answer their own and others’ questions. They question the validity of sources when appropriate. They apply thinking strategies to organise information and concepts in a variety of contexts, including problem solving activities. They provide reasons for their conclusions.


At Level 4, students apply creative ideas in practical ways and test the possibilities of ideas they generate. They use open-ended questioning and integrate available information to explore ideas.

Reflection, evaluation and metacognition

At Level 4, students identify strategies they use to organise their ideas, and use appropriate language to explain their thinking. They identify and provide reasons for their point of view, and justify changes in their thinking.

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