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Level 10

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The Arts

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of Level 10 standards in the Arts, they design, make and present arts works. In doing so, they develop skills in making decisions about creative ways of generating and implementing ideas. They reflect on their experiences and observations, consider what they have learned about styles and forms and explore issues and concrete and abstract concepts to generate ideas. They keep their intended aesthetic qualities in mind when they experiment with, select, vary combinations of and manipulate arts elements, principles and/or conventions to effectively realise their ideas, represent their observations and communicate their interpretations of issues and concepts. For example:

  • in Music, in response to learning and performing songs that reflect the &...
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Standards

Creating and making

At Level 10, within and across areas of specialisation, students apply decision making skills to find the most effective way to implement ideas, design, create and make arts works devised from a range of stimuli, demonstrating development of a personal style. They evaluate, reflect on, refine and justify their work’s content, design, development and their aesthetic choices. Students realise their ideas, represent observations and communicate their interpretations by effectively combining and manipulating selected arts elements, principles and/or conventions to create the desired aesthetic qualities. Independently and collaboratively, they apply their knowledge and understanding to design, create and produce arts works influenced by the style of particular artists...

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Civics and Citizenship

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of Level 10 standards in Civics and Citizenship, they explore the development of Australia’s democracy from Federation, the development of the Australian Constitution and the federal system of government. They investigate some historical and contemporary issues, such as the republican debate, the inclusion of a bill of rights in the Australian Constitution, the design of the Australian flag, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (ATSI) recognition in the Australian Constitution, and the division of federal and state powers. They compare Australia’s democracy with other democracies.

Students investigate the nature and history of the concept of human rights. They become aware of national and international legislation designed to protect...

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Standards

Civic knowledge and understanding

At Level 10, students describe the origins and nature of Australia’s federal political system and present a considered point of view on an issue about change in the political system and the law. They explain how the Australian Constitution affects their lives, and human rights issues, both national and international. They explain how citizens influence government policy through participation in political parties, elections and membership of interest groups. They explain the development of a multicultural society and the values necessary to sustain it. They describe the election processes in Australia and how to vote. They explain the roles and responsibilities of courts at state and federal levels and evaluate a change in the law. They analyse...

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Communication

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of Level 10 standards in Communication, they listen to speakers in a range of contexts, including the school, the wider community and workplaces. They develop their skills in interpreting meaning; for example, by identifying inferences and assumptions. They know what it means to effectively respond both verbally and non-verbally in different contexts and are able to demonstrate this. Students elaborate on and clarify content of presentations, using pertinent questions to explore explicit and implicit meaning. In discussion with their peers, they evaluate the effectiveness of these presentations and note how they can apply the findings to their own presentations.

In structured activities, students explore the relationship between language and power...

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Standards

Listening, viewing and responding

At Level 10, students identify the ways in which complex messages are effectively conveyed and apply this knowledge to their communication. When listening, viewing and responding, they consider alternative views, recognise multiple possible interpretations and respond with insight. They use complex verbal and non-verbal cues, subject-specific language, and a wide range of communication forms. Students use pertinent questions to explore, clarify and elaborate complex meaning.

Presenting

At Level 10, students demonstrate their understanding of the relationship between form, content and mode, and select suitable resources and technologies to effectively communicate. They use subject-specific language and conventions in accordance with the purpose of their presentation to communicate complex information. They provide constructive feedback to others and use feedback and reflection in order to inform their future presentations.

Design, Creativity and Technology

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of Level 10 standards in Design, Creativity and Technology, they specialise in a specific area of design and technology. Specialisations could focus on specific materials areas (such as wood, metal, plastics, food, ceramics or textiles) or technological systems (such as computer-controlled systems, electronics or mechanisms or combinations of these), or particular design/technology areas (such as home economics, fashion, robotics, furniture, agriculture and horticulture).

They continue to pose and define design problems by working with a variety of design briefs within various contexts including those that have transferability into the workplace and broader community.

Students develop design briefs within open-ended design guidelines. Referring...

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Standards

Investigating and designing

At Level 10, students identify considerations and constraints within a design brief. They undertake research relevant to the design brief. They locate and use relevant information to help their design thinking and identify the needs of a variety of client/user groups. When designing, they generate a range of alternative possibilities, use appropriate technical language, and justify their preferred option, explaining how it provides a solution to the problem, need or opportunity. They make critical decisions on materials/ingredients, systems components and techniques based on their understanding of the properties and characteristics of materials/ingredients and/or of the relationship between inputs, processes and outputs. They effectively use information and...

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English

English Level Description

The English curriculum is built around the three interrelated strands of Language, Literature and Literacy. Teaching and learning programs should balance and integrate all three strands. Together the strands focus on developing students’ knowledge, understanding and skills in listening, reading, viewing, speaking, writing and creating. Learning in English builds on concepts, skills and processes...

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English Content Descriptions

Reading and viewing

Language
  1. Compare the purposes, text structures and language features of traditional and contemporary texts in different media (ACELA1566)
  2. Evaluate the impact on audiences of different choices in the representation of still and moving images (ACELA1572)
  3. Understand that people’s evaluations of texts are influenced by their value systems, the context and the purpose and mode of communication (ACELA1565)
Literature
  1. Compare and evaluate a range of representations of individuals and groups in different historical, social and cultural contexts (ACELT1639)
  2. Analyse and explain how text structures, language features and visual features of texts and the context in which texts are experienced may influence audience response (ACELT1641)
  3. Identify, explain and discuss how narrative viewpoint, structure, characterisation and devices including analogy and satire shape different interpretations and responses to a text (ACELT1642)
  4. Analyse and evaluate text structures and language features of literary texts and make relevant thematic and intertextual connections with other texts (ACELT1774)
  5. Compare and evaluate how ‘voice’ as a literary device can be used in a range of different types of texts such as poetry to evoke particular emotional responses (ACELT1643)
  6. Evaluate the social, moral and ethical positions represented in texts (ACELT1812)
Literacy
  1. Analyse and evaluate how people, cultures, places, events, objects and concepts are represented in texts, including media texts, through language, structural and/or visual choices (ACELY1749)
  2. Identify and analyse implicit or explicit values, beliefs and assumptions in texts and how these are influenced by purposes and likely audiences (ACELY1752)
  3. Choose a reading technique and reading path appropriate for the type of text, to retrieve and connect ideas within and between texts (ACELY1753)
  4. Use comprehension strategies to compare and contrast information within and between texts, identifying and analysing embedded perspectives, and evaluating supporting evidence (ACELY1754)

Writing

Language
  1. Understand how paragraphs and images can be arranged for different purposes, audiences, perspectives and stylistic effects (ACELA1567)
  2. Analyse and evaluate the effectiveness of a wide range of sentence and clause structures as authors design and craft texts (ACELA1569)
  3. Analyse how higher order concepts are developed in complex texts through language features including nominalisation, clause combinations, technicality and abstraction (ACELA1570)
  4. Refine vocabulary choices to discriminate between shades of meaning, with deliberate attention to the effect on audiences (ACELA1571)
  5. Understand how to use knowledge of the spelling system to spell unusual and technical words accurately, for example those based on uncommon Greek and Latin roots (ACELA1573)
  6. Understand conventions for citing others, and how to reference these in different ways (ACELA1568)
Literature
  1. Create literary texts that reflect an emerging sense of personal style and evaluate the effectiveness of these texts (ACELT1814)
  2. Create literary texts with a sustained ‘voice’, selecting and adapting appropriate text structures, literary devices, language, auditory and visual structures and features for a specific purpose and intended audience (ACELT1815)
  3. Create imaginative texts that make relevant thematic and intertextual connections with other texts (ACELT1644)
Literacy
  1. Create sustained texts, including texts that combine specific digital or media content, for imaginative, informative, or persuasive purposes that reflect upon challenging and complex issues (ACELY1756)
  2. Review, edit and refine students’ own and others’ texts for control of content, organisation, sentence structure, vocabulary, and/or visual features to achieve particular purposes and effects (ACELY1757)
  3. Use a range of software, including word processing programs, confidently, flexibly and imaginatively to create, edit and publish texts, considering the identified purpose and the characteristics of the user (ACELY1776)

Speaking and Listening

Language
  1. Understand that Standard Australian English in its spoken and written forms has a history of evolution and change and continues to evolve (ACELA1563)
  2. Understand how language use can have inclusive and exclusive social effects, and can empower or disempower people (ACELA1564)
Literature
  1. Reflect on, extend, endorse or refute others’ interpretations of and responses to literature (ACELT1640)
Literacy
  1. Identify and explore the purposes and effects of different text structures and language features of spoken texts, and use this knowledge to create purposeful texts that inform, persuade and engage (ACELY1750)
  2. Use organisation patterns, voice and language conventions to present a point of view on a subject, speaking clearly, coherently and with effect, using logic, imagery and rhetorical devices to engage audiences (ACELY1813)
  3. Plan, rehearse and deliver presentations, selecting and sequencing appropriate content and multimodal elements to influence a course of action (ACELY1751)

English Achievement Standard

Reading and viewing

By the end of Level 10, students evaluate how text structures can be used in innovative ways by different authors. They explain how the choice of language features, images and vocabulary contributes to the development of individual style.

They develop and justify their own interpretations of texts. They evaluate other interpretations, analysing the evidence used to support them.

Writing

Students show how the selection of language features can achieve precision and stylistic effect. They explain different viewpoints, attitudes and perspectives through the development of cohesive and logical arguments. They develop their own style by experimenting with language features, stylistic devices, text structures and images. They create a wide range of texts to articulate complex ideas. They demonstrate understanding of grammar, vary vocabulary choices for impact, and accurately use spelling and punctuation when creating and editing texts.

Speaking and Listening

Students listen for ways features within texts can be manipulated to achieve particular effects. They show how the selection of language features can achieve precision and stylistic effect. They explain different...

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Health and Physical Education

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of Level 10 standards in Health and Physical Education, they develop proficiency in a range of high-level movement and manipulative skills such as a smash in tennis, and focus on identifying and implementing ways of improving the quality of their performance during games, physical activities and sports. They may be introduced to new sports, games or activities which will require them to learn new skills or adapt previously learnt skills in a new context.

They investigate different components of fitness, how these vary between activities and how they contribute to the wellbeing of people at different stages of their lives. Students learn to set personal physical activity and/or fitness goals, develop an activity and/or fitness program and evaluate...

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Standards

Movement and physical activity

At Level 10, students demonstrate proficiency in the execution of manipulative and movement skills during complex activities. They demonstrate advanced skills in selected physical activities. They use training methods to improve their fitness level, and participate in sports, games, recreational and leisure activities that maintain regular participation in moderate to vigorous physical activity. They employ and devise skills and strategies to counter tactical challenges in games situations. They assume responsibility for conduct of aspects of a sporting competition in which roles are shared and display appropriate sporting behaviour.

Health knowledge and promotion

At Level 10, students identify and describe a range of social and cultural factors that influence...

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History

History Level Description

The Modern World and Australia

The Level 10 curriculum provides a study of the history of the modern world and Australia from 1918 to the present, with an emphasis on Australia in its global context. The twentieth century...

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Key inquiry questions

  1. How did the nature of global conflict change during the twentieth century?
  2. What were the consequences of World War II? How did these consequences shape the modern world?
  3. How was Australian society affected by other significant global events and changes in this period?

History Content Descriptions

Historical Knowledge and Understanding

Overview

The following content is taught as part of an overview for the historical period. It is not intended to be taught in depth. An overview will constitute approximately 10% of the total teaching time for the level. Overview content identifies important features of the period (1918 to the present) as part of an expansive chronology that helps students understand broad patterns of historical change. As such, the overview provides the broader context for the teaching of depth study content and can be built into various parts of a teaching and learning program. This means that overview content can be used to give students an introduction to the historical period; to make the links to and between the depth studies, and to consolidate understanding through a review of the period.

Overview content for the Modern World and Australia includes the following:

  1. the inter-war levels between World War I and World War II, including the Treaty of Versailles, the Roaring Twenties and the Great Depression
  2. continuing efforts post-World War II to achieve lasting peace and security in the world, including Australia’s involvement in UN peacekeeping
  3. the major movements for rights and freedom in the world and the achievement of independence by former colonies
  4. the nature of the Cold War and Australia’s involvement in Cold War and post-Cold War conflicts (Korea, Vietnam, The Gulf Wars, Afghanistan), including the rising influence of Asian nations since the end of the Cold War
  5. developments in technology, public health, longevity and standard of living during the twentieth century, and concern for the environment and sustainability
Depth studies
There are three depth studies for this historical period. For each depth study, there are up to three electives that focus on a particular society, event, movement or development. It is expected that ONE elective will be studied in detail. A depth study will constitute approximately 30% of the total teaching time for the level. The content in each depth study elective is designed to allow detailed study of specific aspects of this historical period. As part of a teaching and learning program, depth study content can be integrated with overview content and/or integrated with other depth study electives.
1 World War II
Students investigate wartime experiences through a study of World War II in depth. This includes a study of the causes, events, outcome and broader impact of the conflict as an episode in world history, and the nature of Australia’s involvement.
  1. World War II (1939-45)
    1. An overview of the causes and course of World War II (ACDSEH024)
    2. An examination of significant events of World War II, including the Holocaust and use of the atomic bomb (ACDSEH107)
    3. The experiences of Australians during World War II (such as Prisoners of War (POWs), the Battle of Britain, Kokoda, the Fall of Singapore) (ACDSEH108)
    4. The impact of World War II, with a particular emphasis on the Australian home front, including the changing roles of women and use of wartime government controls (conscription, manpower controls, rationing and censorship) (ACDSEH109)
    5. The significance of World War II to Australia’s international relationships in the twentieth century, with particular reference to the United Nations, Britain, the USA and Asia (ACDSEH110)
2 Rights and freedoms
Students investigate struggles for human rights in depth. This will include how rights and freedoms have been ignored, demanded or achieved in Australia and in the broader world context.
  1. Rights and freedoms (1945 – the present)
    1. The origins and significance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, including Australia’s involvement in the development of the declaration (ACDSEH023)
    2. Background to the struggle of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples for rights and freedoms before 1965, including the 1938 Day of Mourning and the Stolen Generations (ACDSEH104)
    3. The US civil rights movement and its influence on Australia (ACDSEH105)
    4. The significance of the following for the civil rights of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: 1962 right to vote federally; 1967 Referendum; Reconciliation; Mabo decision; Bringing Them Home Report (the Stolen Generations), the Apology (ACDSEH106)
    5. Methods used by civil rights activists to achieve change for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, and the role of ONE individual or group in the struggle (ACDSEH134)
    6. The continuing nature of efforts to secure civil rights and freedoms in Australia and throughout the world, such as the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (2007) (ACDSEH143)
3 The globalising world
Students investigate one major global influence that has shaped Australian society in depth, including the development of the global influence during the twentieth century. Students study ONE of these electives: Popular culture or The environment movement or Migration experiences.
  1. Popular culture (1945 – present)
    1. The nature of popular culture in Australia at the end of World War II, including music, film and sport (ACDSEH027)
    2. Developments in popular culture in post-war Australia and their impact on society, including the introduction of television and rock ’n’ roll (ACDSEH121)
    3. The changing nature of the music, film and television industry in Australia during the post-war period, including the influence of overseas developments (such as Hollywood, Bollywood and the animation film industry in China and Japan) (ACDSEH122)
    4. Australia’s contribution to international popular culture (music, film, television, sport). (ACDSEH123)
    5. Continuity and change in beliefs and values that have influenced the Australian way of life (ACDSEH149)
    OR
  2. Migration experiences (1945 – present)
    1. The waves of post-World War II migration to Australia, including the influence of significant world events (ACDSEH144)
    2. The impact of changing government policies on Australia’s migration patterns, including abolition of the White Australia Policy, ‘Populate or Perish’ (ACDSEH145)
    3. The impact of at least ONE world event or development and its significance for Australia, such as the Vietnam War and Indochinese refugees (ACDSEH146)
    4. The contribution of migration to Australia’s changing identity as a nation and to its international relationships (ACDSEH147)
    OR
  3. The environment movement (1960s – present)
    1. The background to environmental awareness, including the nineteenth century National Parks movement in America and Australia (ACDSEH028)
    2. The intensification of environmental effects in the twentieth century as a result of population increase, urbanisation, increasing industrial production and trade (ACDSEH125)
    3. The growth and influence of the environment movement within Australia and overseas, and developments in ideas about the environment (notion of ‘Gaia’, ‘limits to growth’, concept of ‘sustainability’, concept of ‘rights of nature’) (ACDSEH126)
    4. Significant events and campaigns that contributed to popular awareness of environmental issues, such as the campaign to prevent the damming of Australia’s Gordon River, the nuclear accident at Chernobyl and the Jabiluka mine controversy in 1998 (ACDSEH127)
    5. Responses of governments, including the Australian government, and international organisations to environmental threats since the 1960s (including deforestation and climate change). (ACDSEH128)

Historical Skills

Chronology, terms and concepts
  1. Use chronological sequencing to demonstrate the relationship between events and developments in different periods and places (ACHHS182)
  2. Use historical terms and concepts (ACHHS183)
Historical questions and research
  1. Identify and select different kinds of questions about the past to inform historical inquiry (ACHHS184)
  2. Evaluate and enhance these questions (ACHHS185)
  3. Identify and locate relevant sources, using ICT and other methods (ACHHS186)
Analysis and use of sources
  1. Identify the origin, purpose and context of primary and secondary sources (ACHHS187)
  2. Process and synthesise information from a range of sources for use as evidence in an historical argument (ACHHS188)
  3. Evaluate the reliability and usefulness of primary and secondary sources (ACHHS189)
Perspectives and interpretations
  1. Identify and analyse the perspectives of people from the past (ACHHS190)
  2. Identify and analyse different historical interpretations (including their own) (ACHHS191)
Explanation and communication
  1. Develop texts, particularly descriptions and discussions that use evidence from a range of sources that are referenced (ACHHS192)
  2. Select and use a range of communication forms (oral, graphic, written) and digital technologies (ACHHS193)

History Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 10, students refer to key events, the actions of individuals and groups, and beliefs and values to explain patterns of change and continuity over time. They analyse the causes and effects of events and developments and explain their relative importance. They explain the context for people’s actions in the past. Students explain the significance of events and developments from a range of perspectives. They explain different interpretations of the past and recognise the evidence used to support these interpretations.

Students sequence events and developments within a chronological framework, and identify relationships between events across different places and periods of time. When researching, students develop, evaluate and modify questions to frame an historical inquiry. They process, analyse and synthesise information from a range of primary and secondary sources and use it as evidence to answer inquiry questions. Students analyse sources to identify motivations, values and attitudes. When evaluating these sources, they analyse and draw conclusions about their usefulness, taking into account their origin, purpose, and context. They develop and justify their...

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The Humanities - Economics

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of Level 10 standards in Economics, they develop their understanding of how the Australian economy is managed, particularly within the international economic context. They analyse how macroeconomic and microeconomic policies and programs advanced by governments and other institutions affect them and their fellow citizens. They examine the role of exchange, trade and globalisation in influencing Australia’s standard of living. They develop an understanding of enterprise attributes and skills, and describe the impact of innovation and enterprise on the economy and society.

Students investigate the relationship between economic growth, ecological sustainability and the standard of living, and explore what it means to be an ethical producer...

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Standards

Economic knowledge and understanding

At Level 10, students describe how markets, government policies, enterprise and innovation affect the economy, society and environment in terms of employment, economic growth, the use of resources, exports and imports, and ecological sustainability.

They analyse how goods and services are produced and how markets work. They predict how prices will change when there is either a surplus or shortage, and explain how this might influence the behaviour of consumers and producers. They analyse the role and significance of exchange, trade and globalisation in influencing Australia’s standard of living. They discuss and explain what it means to be an ethical consumer and producer and identify examples of ways values can affect the economic decision...

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The Humanities - Geography

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of Level 10 standards in Geography, they develop knowledge about the operation of one of the major natural systems that are part of the biosphere and atmosphere; for example, the hydrologic cycle, plate tectonics or the weather. Students investigate the interaction of human activities with the natural environment through a study of issues such as global warming and climate change, land degradation and desertification, and air and water pollution. Students develop skills to evaluate the factors contributing to the development of these issues, identify strategies to address them and explore ways of managing them.

Students investigate the characteristics of development that occur across the globe. They use an inquiry-based approach to explore how...

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Standards

Geographic knowledge and understanding

At Level 10, students explain the operation of a major natural system and its interaction with human activities. They evaluate the consequences of the interaction and develop a policy to address an issue related to it. Students describe global patterns of development from a range of perspectives and identify and describe the factors that determine these patterns. They analyse development issues and formulate and evaluate comprehensive policies, including those for sustainable use and management of resources, to alter development patterns at a range of scales. They use evidence based on their inquiries and geographical language and concepts.

Geospatial skills

At Level 10, students accurately interpret information on different types of maps and photographs at a range of scales, and use map evidence to support explanations, draw inferences and predict associated outcomes. They collect and collate information gathered from fieldwork observations and present their findings observing geographical presentation conventions.

Information and Communications Technology

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of Level 10 standards in Information and Communications Technology, they use complex ICT tools and techniques to visually represent, model, reframe and refine their thinking to assist in developing new understanding. For example, they can represent causal reasoning by using graphic organisers such as cause-and-effect diagrams, influence diagramsand explore and represent the interdependence between different components of a situation by using expert systems, spreadsheets and microworlds. By changing the values of some variable components, students can visualise the effect of these on the constant components to assist their understanding.

In addition to recording and evaluating the decisions and actions taken when developing new understanding and...

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Standards

ICT for visualising thinking

At Level 10, students use a range of ICT tools and data types to visualise their thinking strategies when solving problems and developing new understanding. They use visualising thinking tools and apply ICT techniques to support causal reasoning and to model and describe the dynamic relationship between variable and constant data values to test hypotheses.

Students are efficient and effective in their use of appropriate ICT tools and editing techniques for assisting in visualising thinking. When solving problems, students discriminate between such tools and strategies based on their suitability for problem solving in new situations.

ICT for creating

At Level 10, students appraise different strategies for organising and managing resources involved in problem...

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Interpersonal Development

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of Level 10 standards in Interpersonal Development, they develop their knowledge of local and global values and beliefs and consider the idea of values as social constructs and principles. They explore barriers to achieving positive relationships, especially between groups with differing values and beliefs, and discuss the importance of empathy. They explore strategies that they and others could use to overcome these barriers, and practise using such strategies and reflecting on their effectiveness.

They learn to consider feelings and behaviour in a broader context that is influenced by social conventions and cultures. They understand individual and group behaviour in the context of motivating factors when students participate in activities, including...

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Standards

Building social relationships

At Level 10, students demonstrate awareness of complex social conventions, behaving appropriately when interacting with others. They describe how local and global values and beliefs determine their own and others’ social relationships. They evaluate their own behaviour in relationships, identify potential conflict and employ strategies to avoid and/or resolve it.

Working in teams

At Level 10, students work collaboratively, negotiate roles and delegate tasks to complete complex tasks in teams. Working with the strengths of a team they achieve agreed goals within set timeframes. Students describe how they respect and build on the ideas and opinions of team members and clearly articulate or record their reflections on the effectiveness of learning in a team. They develop and implement strategies for improving their contributions to achieving the team goals.

Languages Pathway 1

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of standards in Languages at Pathway 1 Level 10, they compare and contrast aspects of life in non-English speaking countries with those in multicultural Australia, and the impact of some of these aspects on the way people behave and use language.

They explore the extent and limitations of the language that they have learnt. They develop strategies for maximising and extending the skills and knowledge and cultural understanding they have acquired. They understand that language is a complex system with rules, and differences from English. They realise that words and concepts may not have a direct equivalent in another language.

Students extend their interactions to exchange information and opinions on topics such as leisure, relationships,...

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Standards

Communicating in a language other than English

At Pathway 1 Level 10, students identify relevant information and ideas from spoken texts. They spontaneously participate in interactions related to a specific topic, and employ insights from previous language learning in oral interactions.

Students effectively discriminate and use pronunciation, tone, intonation and metre. They initiate and maintain interactions to give and receive information and impressions.

Students reproduce the main features of grammar in the language, and identify differences between English and other languages. They identify ways in which intentions and ideas are expressed differently in different languages. They communicate information in translation and interpretation activities, demonstrating careful consideration...

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Languages Pathway 2

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of standards in Languages at Pathway 2 Level 10, they compare and contrast aspects of life in non-English speaking countries with those in multicultural Australia, and identify similarities and differences.

Students learn to recognise the extent and limitations of their language proficiency and develop strategies for maximising and extending their language skills, knowledge and cultural understanding. They understand that language is a complex system with rules, and that there are subtle differences between languages. They appreciate that direct transposition from English cannot occur. They reflect on their own learning styles and strategies.

Students interact to exchange information and opinions on topics related to the world of adolescence...

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Standards

Communicating in a language other than English

At Pathway 2 Level 10, students recall most of the main ideas, objects and details presented in a topic. They reproduce the main features of grammar in the language and identify differences with English and other languages. They identify ways in which intentions and ideas are expressed in different languages.

Students identify relevant information and ideas from spoken texts. They discriminate and use appropriate pronunciation, tone, intonation and metre. Students use a range of strategies to assist in listening comprehension. They participate in interactions related to a specific topic and recycle language to express information and impressions effectively in oral interactions.

Students demonstrate awareness of the language requirements...

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Mathematics

Mathematics Level Description

The proficiency strands Understanding, Fluency, Problem Solving and Reasoning are an integral part of mathematics content across the three content strands: Number and Algebra, Measurement and Geometry, and Statistics and Probability. The proficiencies reinforce the significance of working mathematically within the content and describe how the content is explored or developed. They provide the...

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Mathematics Content Descriptions

Number and Algebra

Money and financial mathematics
  1. Connect the compound interest formula to repeated applications of simple interest using appropriate digital technologies (ACMNA229)
Patterns and algebra
  1. Factorise algebraic expressions by taking out a common algebraic factor (ACMNA230)
  2. Simplify algebraic products and quotients using index laws (ACMNA231)
  3. Apply the four operations to simple algebraic fractions with numerical denominators (ACMNA232)
  4. Expand binomial products and factorise monic quadratic expressions using a variety of strategies (ACMNA233)
  5. Substitute values into formulas to determine an unknown (ACMNA234)
Linear and non-linear relationships
  1. Solve problems involving linear equations, including those derived from formulas (ACMNA235)
  2. Solve linear inequalities and graph their solutions on a number line (ACMNA236)
  3. Solve linear simultaneous equations, using algebraic and graphical techniques including using digital technology (ACMNA237)
  4. Solve problems involving parallel and perpendicular lines (ACMNA238)
  5. Explore the connection between algebraic and graphical representations of relations such as simple quadratics, circles and exponentials using digital technology as appropriate (ACMNA239)
  6. Solve linear equations involving simple algebraic fractions (ACMNA240)
  7. Solve simple quadratic equations using a range of strategies (ACMNA241)

Measurement and Geometry

Using units of measurement
  1. Solve problems involving surface area and volume for a range of prisms, cylinders and composite solids (ACMMG242)
Geometric reasoning
  1. Formulate proofs involving congruent triangles and angle properties (ACMMG243)
  2. Apply logical reasoning, including the use of congruence and similarity, to proofs and numerical exercises involving plane shapes (ACMMG244)
Pythagoras and trigonometry
  1. Solve right-angled triangle problems including those involving direction and angles of elevation and depression (ACMMG245)

Statistics and Probability

Chance
  1. Describe the results of two- and three-step chance experiments, both with and without replacements, assign probabilities to outcomes and determine probabilities of events. Investigate the concept of independence (ACMSP246)
  2. Use the language of ‘if ....then, ‘given’, ‘of’, ‘knowing that’ to investigate conditional statements and identify common mistakes in interpreting such language (ACMSP247)
Data representation and interpretation
  1. Determine quartiles and interquartile range (ACMSP248)
  2. Construct and interpret box plots and use them to compare data sets (ACMSP249)
  3. Compare shapes of box plots to corresponding histograms and dot plots (ACMSP250)
  4. Use scatter plots to investigate and comment on relationships between two numerical variables (ACMSP251)
  5. Investigate and describe bivariate numerical data where the independent variable is time (ACMSP252)
  6. Evaluate statistical reports in the media and other places by linking claims to displays, statistics and representative data (ACMSP253)

Mathematics Achievement Standard

Number and Algebra

Students recognise the connection between simple and compound interest. They solve problems involving linear equations and inequalities, quadratic equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations and related graphs, with and without the use of digital technology. Students substitute into formulas, find unknown values, manipulate linear algebraic expressions, expand binomial expressions and factorise monic and simple non-monic quadratic expressions, with and without the use of digital technology. They represent linear, quadratic and exponential functions numerically, graphically and algebraically, and use them to model situations and solve practical problems.

Measurement and Geometry

Students solve and explain surface area and volume problems relating to composite solids. They use parallel and perpendicular lines, angle and triangle properties, similarity, trigonometry and congruence to solve practical problems and develop proofs involving lengths, angles and areas in plane shapes. They use digital technology to construct and manipulate geometric shapes and objects, and explore symmetry and pattern in two dimensions.

Statistics and Probability

Students compare univariate data sets by referring to summary statistics and the shape of their displays. They describe bivariate data where the independent variable is time and use scatter-plots generated by digital technology to investigate relationships between two continuous variables. Students evaluate the use of statistics in the media. They list outcomes for multi-step chance experiments involving independent and dependent events, and assign probabilities for these experiments. 

Mathematics

Mathematics Content Descriptions

Number and Algebra

Real numbers
  1. Define rational and irrational numbers and perform operations with surds and fractional indices (ACMNA264)
  2. Use the definition of a logarithm to establish and apply the laws of logarithms (ACMNA265)
Patterns and algebra
  1. Investigate the concept of a polynomial and apply the factor and remainder theorems to solve problems (ACMNA266)
Linear and non-linear relationships
  1. Describe, interpret and sketch parabolas, hyperbolas, circles and exponential functions and their transformations (ACMNA267)
  2. Solve simple exponential equations (ACMNA270)
  3. Apply understanding of polynomials to sketch a range of curves and describe the features of these curves from their equation (ACMNA268)
  4. Factorise monic and non-monic quadratic expressions and solve a wide range of quadratic equations derived from a variety of contexts (ACMNA269)

Measurement and Geometry

Using units of measurement
  1. Solve problems involving surface area and volume of right pyramids, right cones, spheres and related composite solids (ACMMG271)
Geometric reasoning
  1. Prove and apply angle and chord properties of circles (ACMMG272)
Pythagoras and trigonometry
  1. Establish the sine, cosine and area rules for any triangle and solve related problems (ACMMG273)
  2. Use the unit circle to define trigonometric functions, and graph them with and without the use of digital technologies (ACMMG274)
  3. Solve simple trigonometric equations (ACMMG275)
  4. Apply Pythagoras’ theorem and trigonometry to solving three-dimensional problems in right-angled triangles (ACMMG276)

Statistics and Probability

Chance
  1. Investigate reports of studies in digital media and elsewhere for information on their planning and implementation (ACMSP277)
Data representation and interpretation
  1. Calculate and interpret the mean and standard deviation of data and use these to compare data sets (ACMSP278)
  2. Use information technologies to investigate bivariate numerical data sets. Where appropriate use a straight line to describe the relationship allowing for variation (ACMSP279)

Personal Learning

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of Level 10 standards in Personal Learning, they demonstrate increasing independence in the completion of tasks as they work towards becoming autonomous learners. They participate in reflective activities that enable them to consider the progress they are making with their learning and to acknowledge their potential for learning beyond the post-compulsory school years.

Students are encouraged to use appropriate strategies to maximise their learning in a range of contexts and to review and refine their study habits. They complete projects that require them to work both independently and as part of a team, and are actively encouraged by their teachers to initiate learner-directed projects.

Using an ethical framework, students address ambiguous and...

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Standards

The individual learner

At Level 10, students work independently to implement a range of strategies, as appropriate, to maximise their learning. They monitor and reflect on and discuss their progress as autonomous learners, identifying areas for improvement in their learning and implementing actions to address them. Students seek and respond to feedback from peers, teachers and other adults to develop and refine their content knowledge and understanding, identifying areas for further investigation. They evaluate the effectiveness of their learning strategies, study techniques and learning habits, and make appropriate modifications. They identify their interests, strengths and weaknesses and use these to determine future learning needs, especially in relation to the post-compulsory pathways.

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Science

Science Level Description

The Science Inquiry Skills and Science as a Human Endeavour strands are described across a two-level band. In their planning, schools and teachers refer to the expectations outlined in the Achievement Standard and also to the content of the Science Understanding strand for the relevant level to ensure that these two strands are addressed over the two-level period. The three strands of the curriculum...

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Science Content Descriptions

Science Understanding

Biological sciences
  1. The transmission of heritable characteristics from one generation to the next involves DNA and genes (ACSSU184)
  2. The theory of evolution by natural selection explains the diversity of living things and is supported by a range of scientific evidence (ACSSU185)
Chemical sciences
  1. The atomic structure and properties of elements are used to organise them in the Periodic Table (ACSSU186)
  2. Different types of chemical reactions are used to produce a range of products and can occur at different rates (ACSSU187)
Earth and space sciences
  1. The universe contains features including galaxies, stars and solar systems and the Big Bang theory can be used to explain the origin of the universe (ACSSU188)
  2. Global systems, including the carbon cycle, rely on interactions involving the biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere (ACSSU189)
Physical sciences
  1. Energy conservation in a system can be explained by describing energy transfers and transformations (ACSSU190)
  2. The motion of objects can be described and predicted using the laws of physics (ACSSU229)

Science as a Human Endeavour

Nature and development of science
  1. Scientific understanding, including models and theories, are contestable and are refined over time through a process of review by the scientific community (ACSHE191)
  2. Advances in scientific understanding often rely on developments in technology and technological advances are often linked to scientific discoveries (ACSHE192)
Use and influence of science
  1. People can use scientific knowledge to evaluate whether they should accept claims, explanations or predictions (ACSHE194)
  2. Advances in science and emerging sciences and technologies can significantly affect people’s lives, including generating new career opportunities (ACSHE195)
  3. The values and needs of contemporary society can influence the focus of scientific research (ACSHE230)

Science Inquiry Skills

Questioning and predicting
  1. Formulate questions or hypotheses that can be investigated scientifically (ACSIS198)
Planning and conducting
  1. Plan, select and use appropriate investigation methods, including field work and laboratory experimentation, to collect reliable data; assess risk and address ethical issues associated with these methods (ACSIS199)
  2. Select and use appropriate equipment, including digital technologies, to systematically and accurately collect and record data (ACSIS200)
Processing and analysing data and information
  1. Analyse patterns and trends in data, including describing relationships between variables and identifying inconsistencies (ACSIS203)
  2. Use knowledge of scientific concepts to draw conclusions that are consistent with evidence (ACSIS204)
Evaluating
  1. Evaluate conclusions, including identifying sources of uncertainty and possible alternative explanations, and describe specific ways to improve the quality of the data (ACSIS205)
  2. Critically analyse the validity of information in secondary sources and evaluate the approaches used to solve problems (ACSIS206)
Communicating
  1. Communicate scientific ideas and information for a particular purpose, including constructing evidence-based arguments and using appropriate scientific language, conventions and representations (ACSIS208)

Science Achievement Standard

By the end of Level 10, students explain the concept of energy conservation and model energy transfer and transformation within systems. They analyse how biological systems function and respond to external changes with reference to interdependencies, energy transfers and flows of matter. They evaluate the evidence for scientific theories that explain the origin of the universe and the diversity of life on Earth. They explain the role of DNA and genes in cell division and genetic inheritance. They apply geological timescales to elaborate their explanations of both natural selection and evolution. They explain how similarities in the chemical behaviour of elements and their compounds and their atomic structures are represented in the way the periodic table has been constructed. They compare the properties of a range of elements representative of the major groups and periods in the periodic table. They use atomic symbols and balanced chemical equations to summarise chemical reactions, including neutralisation and combustion. They explain natural radioactivity in terms of atoms and energy change. They explain how different factors influence the rate of reactions. They explain global...

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Thinking Processes

Learning focus

As students work towards the achievement of Level 10 standards in Thinking Processes, they become discriminating thinkers, capable of making informed decisions about controversial and complex issues. They are supported to put effort into sustained thinking in order to construct deep understanding of key concepts across the curriculum. They continually reflect on their own thinking and identify assumptions that may influence their ideas. They seek to develop coherent knowledge structures and recognise gaps in their understanding. They are challenged to identify, use, reflect on, evaluate and modify a variety of effective thinking strategies to inform future choices.

Students begin to formulate and test hypotheses, contentions and conjectures and to collect evidence to support or reject...

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Standards

Reasoning, processing and inquiry

At Level 10, students discriminate in the way they use a variety of sources. They generate questions that explore perspectives. They process and synthesise complex information and complete activities focusing on problem solving and decision making which involve a wide range and complexity of variables and solutions. They employ appropriate methodologies for creating and verifying knowledge in different disciplines. They make informed decisions based on their analysis of various perspectives and, sometimes contradictory, information.

Creativity

At Level 10, students experiment with innovative possibilities within the parameters of a task. They take calculated risks when defining tasks and generating solutions. They apply selectively a range of creative thin...

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